Артериальная гипертензия

Расширенный поиск

Рекомендации по диагностике и лечению артериальной гипертензии

Полный текст:

Список литературы

1. Guidelines Sub-Committee. 1993 Guidelines forthe management of mild hypertension; memorandum from a World Health Organiztion/International Society of Hypertension meeting / Hypertens 1993: 11: 905-918. GL

2. Guidelines Sub-Committee. 1999 World Health Organization-Inter-national Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertens 1999; 17: 151-183. GL

3. Pyorala K., be Backer G., Graham I., Poole-Wilson P. Wood D. Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice. Recommendations of the Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology, European Atherosclerosis Society and European Society of Hypertension. Eur Heart J 1994; 15: 1300-1331. GL

4. Wood D., De Backer G., Faergeman O., Graham I., Mancia G., Pyorala K. Prevention of coronary heart disease in clinical practice. Recommendations of the Second Join/ Task Force of European and other Societies on Coronary Prevention. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 1434-1503. GL

5. Collins R., Pelo R., MacMahon S., Herbert P., Fieback N.H., Eberlein K.A. et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2. Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990; 335: 827-839. MA

6. MacMahon S., Peto R., Cutler J., Collins R., Sortie P., Neaton J. et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part I. Prolonged differ ences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990: 335: 765-774. MA

7. Prospective Studies Collaboration. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002: 360: 1903-1913. MA

8. Kjeldsen S.E., Julius S., Hedner T., Hansson I. Stroke is more common than myocardial infarction in hypertension: analysis based on 11 major randomized intervention trials. Blood Press 2001; 10: 190-192. RV

9. Primatesta P., Brookes M., Poulter.N.R. Improved hypertension management and control. Results from the Health Survey for England 1998. Hypertension 2001; 38: 827-832.

10. O'Rourke M.P. From theory into practice. Arterial hemodynamics in clinical hypertension. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 1901-1915. OS

11. Millar J.A., Lever A.F., Burke A. Pulse pressure as a risk factor for cardio vascular events in the MRC Mild Hypertension Trail. J Hypertens 1999: 17: 1065-1072. OS

12. Franklin S., Kban S.A., Wong D.A., Larson M.G., Levy D. Is pulse pressure useful in predicting risk for coronary heart disease? The Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1999: 100: 354-360. OS

13. Franklin S., Larson M.G., Kban S.A., Wong N.D., Leip E.P., Kannel W.B., Levy D. Does tte relation of blood pressure to coronary heart disease risk change with aging? The Pramingbam Heart Study. Circulation 2001; 103: 1245-1249. OS

14. Benetos A., Zureik M., Marcel J., Thomas F., Bean K., Safar M. et al. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure combined with an increase in systolic blood pressure is associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality in men. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000: 35: 673-680. OS

15. SHEF Collaborative Research Croup. Prevention of stroke by antihy-pertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: final results (if the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHE?). JAMA 1991; 295:3255-3264. RT

16. Staessen J.A., Fagard R., Thijs L., Celis H., Arabidze G.G., Birkenhager W.H. et al. for the Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Dial Investigators. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Lancet 1997; 350: 757-764. RT

17. Evans J.G., Rose G. Hypertension. Br Med Bull 1971: 27: 37-42. RV.

18. Zancbetti A., Mancia G. Editors Corner. New year, new challenges. J Hypertens 2003: 21: 1-2.

19. Meigs J.B., D'Agosuno R.B. Sr., Witson P.W., Nathan D.M., Singer D.E. Risk variable clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome. The Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes 1997: 46: 1594-1600. OS

20. Zanchetti A. The hypertensive patient with multiple riskf actors: is treat ment really so difficult? Am J Hypertens 1997: 10: 223S-229S.

21. Slamler J., Wentvorth D., Neateon J.D. Is relationship between serum cholesterol and risk of premature death from coronary heart disease ei4ilinuoiis and graded? Eludings in 356.222 primary screenees of the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). JAMA 1986: 256: 2823-2828. OS

22. Jackson R., Ipdated New Zealand cardiovascular disease risk-benefit prеdiction guide BMJ 2000; 320; 709-710. OS

23. Anderson K.M., Wilson P.W. Odell P.M., Kannel W.B. An updated coronary risk profile. A statement for health professionals. Circulation 1991: 83: 356-362. OS

24. Haq I.V., Ramsay i.e., Yeo W.W., Jackson P.R., Wallis E.J. Is the Framingham risk function valid for northern European populations?A comparison i if methods jar estimating absolute coronary risk, in high risk men. Heart 1999: 81: 40-46. OS

25. Menolli A., Puddu P.E., Lanli M. Comparison of the Framingham risk Function-based coronary chart with risk function from an Italian population study. Eur Heart J 2000: 21: 365-370. OS

26. Menolli A., Lanti M., Puddu P.E., Carratelli L., Mancini M., Motolese M. et al. An Italian chart for cardiovascular risk prediction. Its scientific basis. Am Hal Med Int 2001; 16; 240-251. OS

27. Rodes A., Sans S., Balana L.L., Paluzie G., Aguilera R., Balaguer-Vintro I. Recruitment methods and differences in early, late and non-respondents in the first MONICA-Catalonia population surrey Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 1990; 38; 447-453. OS

28. Schroll M., Jorgensen T., Ingerslev J. The Glostrup Population Studies. 1964-1992. Dan Med Bull 1992: 39: 204-207. OS

29. Keit V., Liese A.D., Hense H.W., Filipiak B., Doring A., Stieber J., Lowel H. Classical risk factors and their impact on incident non-fatal and fatal myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in southern Germany. Results from the MONICA Augsburg cohort study 1984-1992. Monitoring trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Diseases. Eur Heart J 1998; 19: 1197-1207. OS

30. Tunstall-Pedoe H., Woodward M., Tavendale R., Brook R. McCtuskey M.K. Comparison of the prediction by 27 different /actors of coronary heart disease and death in men and women of the Scottish heart health study: cohort study BMJ 1997: 315: 722-729. OS

31. Nartiainen E., Jonsilahli P., Alfthan C., Sundvall J., Pictinen P., Puska P. Cardiovascular risk factor changes in Finland 1972-1997. Int J Epidemiol 2000: 29: 49-56. OS

32. Pocock S.J., Cormack V.Mc., Gueyffier F., Boutitie F., Fagard R.H., Boissel J.P. A score for predicting risk of death from cardiovascular disease in adults with raised blood pressure, based on individual patient data from ran demised controlled trials. BMJ 2001; 323: 75-81. OS

33. Conroy R.M., Pyorala R., Fitzgerald A.P., Sans S., Menolli A., De Backer G. et al. on behalf of the SCORE project group. Prediction of ten-year risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in Europe: the SCORE project. Eur Heart J 2003 (in press). OS

34. Simpson F.O. Guidelines for antihypertensive therapy: problems with a strategy based on absolute cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens 1996; 14: 683-689.

35. Zanchetti A. Antihypertensive therapy How to evaluate the benefits. Am J Cardiol 1997; 79: 3-8.

36. Franklin S.S., Wong N.D. Cardiovascular risk evaluation: an inexact science. J Hypertens 2002. 20: 2127-2130.

37. Reaven G. Metabolic syndrome: pathophysiology and implications for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002: 106: 286-288.

38. Tuomilehto J., Rastenyte D., Birkenhager W.H., Thijs L., Antikanen R., Bulpitt C.J. et al. Effects of calcium channel blockade in older patients with diabetes and systolic hypertension. N Engl J Med 1999: 340: 677-684. RТ

39. Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Dahlof B., Elmjeldt D., Kjeldsen S., Kotloch R. et al. Effects of individual risk factors on the incidence of 'cardiovascular events in the treated hypertensive patients of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment Study HOT Study Group. J Hypertens 2001: 19: 1149-1159. OS

40. Ruilope L.M., Salvetti A., Jamerson K., Hansson L., Warnold I., Wedel H., Zanchetti A. Renal function and intensive lowering of blood pressure in hypertensive participants of the Hypertension Optinal treatment (HOT) study. J Am Soc Nefibrol 2001: 12: 218-225. RT

41. Ridker P.M. Clinical application of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 2003: 107: 363-369. RV

42. Ridker P.M., Buring J.E., Cook N.R., Rifai N. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 2003: 107: 391-397.05

43. Cuspidi C., Масса G., Salerno M., Michev L., Fusi V., Severgnini B. et al. Evaluation of target organ damage in arterial hypertension: which role for qualiative funduscopic examination? Ital Heart J 2001: 2: 702-706. OS

44. Yikona J.I., Waltis E.J., Ramsay L.I., Jackson L.E. Coronary and cardiovascular risk estimation in uncomplicated mild hypertension. A comparison of frisk, assessment methods. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 2173-2182. OS

45. Cuspidi C., Ambrosioni E., Mancia G., Pessina A.C., Trimarco B., Zanchetti A. Role of echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography in stratifying risk in patients with,essential hypertension: the Assessment of Prognostic Risk. Observational Survey. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1307-1314. OS

46. Chalmers J.P., Zanchetli A. (co-chairmen). Hypertension control. Report of a WHO expert committee. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1996. GL

47. Mancia G., Parati G., Di Rienzo M., Zanchetti A. Blood pressure variability. In: Zanchetti A., Mancia G. (editors): Handbook of hyperlension: pathophysiology of hypertension. Amsterdam: Elseviev Science: 1997. pp. 117-169. RV

48. O'Brien E., Asmar R., Beitin L., Imai Y., Mancia G., Mengden T. et al. on behalf of the European Society of Hypertension Working Group on Blood Pressure Monitoring. European Society of Hypertension recommendations for conventional, ambulatory and home blood pressure measurement. J Hypertens 2003: 21: 821-848. GL

49. O'Brien E., Waeber B., Parati G., Staessen J., Myers M.G. Blood pressure measuring devices: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. BMJ 2001; 322: 531- 536. GL

50. Mancia G., Parati G. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and organ damage. Hypertension 2000: 36: 894-900. RV

51. Mancia G., Zanchetti A., Agahiti Rosei E., Benemio G., De Cesaris R., Fogari R. et al. Ambulatory blood pressure is superior to clinic blood pressure in predicting treatment induced regression of left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 1997: 95: 1464-1470. OS

52. Fagard R.H., Staessen J.A., Thihs L., Prediction of cardiac structure and function by repealed clinic and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 1997: 29: 22-29. OS

53. Yerdecchia P., Schillaci G., Guerrieri M., Gatteschi С., Benemio G., Boldrini F. et al. Circadian blood pressure changes and left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension. Circulation 1990, 81: 528-536. OS

54. Mancia G., Parati G., Hennig M., Elatau B., Omboni S., Glavina F. et al. Relation between blood pressure variability and carotid artery damage in hypertension: baseline data from the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis (ELSA). J Hypertens 2001: 19: 1981-1989. OS

55. Imai Y., Ohkuho T., Sakuma M., Tsuji L., Saloh H., Nagai К. et al. Predictive power of screening blood pressure, ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure measured at home for overall and cardiovascular mortality: a prospective observation in a cohort from Ohasama. Northern Japan. Blood Press Monit 1996; 1: 251-254. OS

56. Ohduho T., Imai Y., Tsuji I., Nagai K., Kato J., Kikuchi N. et al. Home blood pressure measurement has a stronger predictive power for mortality than does screening blood pressure measurement: a population-based observation in Ohasama. Japan. J Hypertens 1998: 16: 971-975. 0S

57. Staessen J.A., Thijs L., Fagard R., O'Brien E., Clement D., de Leeuw P.W. et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk using conventional vs ambulatory blood pressure in older patients with systolic hypertension. JAMA 1990; 282: 539-546. OS

58. Robinson E.G., Dawson S.N., Ahmed U., Manklelow B., Fortherhy M.D., Poller J.F. Twenty-four systolic: blood pressure predicts long-term mortality following acute stroke. J Hypertens 2001: 19: 2127-2134. OS

59. Parati G., Pomidossi G., Casadei V., Mancia G. Lack of alerting reactions and pressor responses to intermittent cuff inflations during noninvasive blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension 1985; 7: 597-601.

60. Mancia G., Omhoni S., Parati G., Ravogli A., Villani A., Zanchetti A. Lack of placebo effect on ambulatory blood pressure. Am J Hypertens 1995: 8: 311-315.

61. Coats A.J.S., Radaelli A., Clark S.J., Comway J., Steight P. The influence of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The design and interpretation of trials in hypertension. J Hypertension 1662: 10: 385-391.

62. Mancia G., Ulian L., Parati G., Trazzi S. increase in blood pressure reproducibility by repeated semi-automatic blood pressure measurements in the clinic environment. J Hypertens 1994: 12: 469-473.

63. Ohkiuho T., Imai Y., Tsuji I., Nagai K., Watanabe N., Minami N. et al. Relation between nocturnal decline in blood pressure and mortality. The Ohasama Study. Am J Hypertens 1997: 10: 1201-1207. OS

64. Staessen J., Fagard R.H., I.ijnen P.J., Van Hoof R., Amery A.R. Mean and range of the ambulatory pressure in normotensive subjects from a meta-analysis of 23 studies. Am J Cardiol 1991; 67: 723-727. MA

65. Mancia G., Sega R., Bravi С., De Vito G., Valagussa F., Cesana G. et al. Ambulatory blood pressure normality: results from the PAMELA Study. J Hypertens 1995; 13: 1377-1390. OS

66. Ohkuho T., Imai Y., Tsuji I., Nagai K., Ito S., Satoh H., Hisamichi S. Reference values for 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring based on a prognostic criterion: the Ohasama Study. Hypertension 1998; 32; 255-259. OS

67. Sakuma M., Imai Y., Nagai K., Watanahe N., Sakuma H., Minami N. et al. Reproducibility of borne blood pressure measurements over a 1-year period. Am J Hypertens 1997:10: 798-803. OS

68. Zaruke K.B., Feagan В.G., Mahon J.L., Feldman R.D. A randomized study comparing a patient-directed hypertension management strategy with usual office-based care. Am J Hvperlens 1997; 10: 58-67. RT

69. Mengden T., Vetter H., Tisler A., Illyes M. Tele-monitoring of home blood pressure. Blood Press Monit 2001; 6: 185-189.

70. Fagard R., Pardaens K., Staesseu J., Thijs L., Amery A. Prognostic value of invasive hemodynamic measurements at rest and during exercise. Hypertension 1996; 26: 31-36. OS

71. Mundal R., Kjeldsen S.B., Sandvik L., Erikssen G., Thaulow F., Erikssen J. Exercise blood pressure predicts mortality from myocardial infarction. Hypertension 1996: 27: 324-329. OS

72. Kjeldsen S.E., Mundal R., Sandvik L., Erikssen G., Thaulow E., Erikssen J. Supine and exercise systolic blood pressure predict cardiovascular death in middle-aged men J Hypertens 2001; 19: 1343-1348. OS

73. Fagard R.H., Pardaens K., Staessen J.A., Thijs L. Should exercise blood pies sure be measured in clinical practice?J Hypertens 1998; 16: 1215-1217.

74. Harshjield G.A., James C.D., Schlussel Y., Yee I.S., Blank S.G., Pickering T.G. Do laboratory tests of blood pressure reactivity predict blood pressure changes during everyday life? Am J Hypertens 1988; 1: 168-174. OS

75. Pickering T., James G.D., Boddie C., Harshfield G.A., Blank S., Laragh J.H. How common is white coat hypertension? JAMA 1998: 259: 225-228. OS

76. Parati G., Ulian L., Santucci C., Obhoni S., Mancia G. Difference between clinic and daytime blood pressure is not a measure of the while coat effect. Hypertension 1998; 31: 1185-1189.

77. Pickering T.G., Coats A., Maltion J.M., Mancia G., Verdecchia P. Task Force V. White-coat hypertension. Blood Press Monit 1999: 4; 333-341. GL

78. Sega R., Trocino G., Lanzarolli A., Carugo S., Cesana C., Schiavina R. et al. Alterations of cardiac structure in patients with isolated office. ambulatory or home hypertension. Data from the general PAMELA population. Circulation 2001: 104: 1385-1392. OS

79. Wing L.M.Н., Brown M.A., Beilin L.J., Ryan P., Reid C. Reverse white coat hypertension in older hypertensives. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 639-644. OS

80. Lin J.F., Roman M.J., Pini R., Schwartz J.E., Pickering T.G., Devereux R.B. Cardiac and arterial target organ damage in adults with elevated ambulatory and normal office blood pressure. Ann Intern Med 1999: 131. 564-572. OS

81. The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1997: 20: 1183-1197. GL

82. Alberti K.G., Zinmet P.Z., Definition, diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Part 1: diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus provisional report of a WHO consultation. Diabet Med 1998; 15: 539-553. GL

83. Levy D., Salomon M., D'Agostino R.B., Belanger A.J., Kannel W.B. Prognostic implications of baseline electrocardiographic features and their serial changes in subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 1994:90: 1786-1793. OS

84. Devereux R.B., Palmieri V., Liu J.E., Wachtell K., Bella J.N., Boman K. et al. Progressive hypertrophy regression with sustained pressure reduction in hypertension: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction study. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1445-1450. OS

85. Reichek N., Devereux R.B., Left ventricular hypertrophy; relation-ship of anatomic, echocardiographic and eleclrocardiographic findings. Circulation 1981: 63: 1391-1398. OS

86. Levy D., Garrison R.J., Savage D.D., Kannel W.B., Castelli W.P. Prognostic implications of ecbocardiographically determined left ventricular mass in the Framingham Heart Study.N Engl J Med 1990: 322: 1561-1566. OS

87. Devereux R.B., Alonso D.R., Letas E.M., Gottlich G.J., Campo E., Sachs I., Retchek. N. Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings. Am J Cardiol 1986, 57: 450-458.

88. Koren M.J., Devereux R.B., Casate P.N., Savage D.D., Laragh J.H., Relation of left ventricular mass and geometry to morbidity and mortality in uncomplicated essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1991; 114: 345-352. OS

89. Ciulla M., Paliotti R., Hess D.B., Tjahja E., Campbell S.E., Magrini F., Weber K.T. Electrocardiographic patterns of myocardial fibrosis in hypertensive patients: endomyocardial biopsy versus ultrasonic tissue characterization. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 1997: 10: 657-664.

90. Hoyt R.M., Skorton D.J., Collins S.M., Melton H.E. Ultrasonic backscatter and collagen in normal ventricular myocardium. Circulation 1984; 69: 775-782.

91. de Simone G., Devereux R.B., Koren M.J., Mensah G.A., Casale P.N., Laragh J.H., Midwall left ventricular mechanics. An independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in arterial hypertension. Circulation 1996. 93: 259-265. OS

92. Aurigemma G.P., Cottdiener J.S., Shemanski L., Gardin J., Kitzman D. Predictive value of systolic and diastolic function for incident congestive heart failure in the elderly: The Cardiovascular Health Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2001: 37: 1042-1048. OS

93. Working Group Report. How to diagnose diastolic heart failure. European Study on Diastolic Heart Failure. Fur Heart J 1998; 19: 990-1003. GL

94. Simon A., Gariepy J., Chironi G., Megnien J-L., Levenson J. Intima-media thickness: a new tool for diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular risk. J Hypertem 2002; 20: 159-169. RV

95. Salonen J.T., Salonen R. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerotic progression. Circulation 1993: 87 (suppl. II): 1156-1165. OS

96. Bots M.L., Hoes A.W., Kondstaal P.J., Hofiman A., Grobbee D.E. Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: The Rotterdam Study. Circulation 1997: 96: 1432- 1437. OS

97. Hodis H.N., Mack W.J., LaBree L., Selzer R.H., Liu C.R., Liu C.H., Azen S.P. The role of carotid arterial intima-media thickness in predicting clinical coronary events Ann Intern Med 1998; 128; 262-269. 0S

98. Zanchetti A., Agahiti Rosei E., Dal Palu C., Leonetti G., Magnani B., Pessina A. The Verapamil in Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Study (VHAS): results of long-term randomized treatment with either verapamil or chlorthalidone on carotid intima-media thickness. J Hypertens 1998; 16: 1667-1676. RT

99. O'Leary D.H., Polak J.F., Kronmal R.A., Manolio T.A., Burke G.L., Wolfson S.K. Jr. Carotid-artery iiit/ma and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Croup. N Engl J Med 1999: 340: 14-22. OS

100. Zanchetti A., Bond M.G., Hennig M., Neiss A., Mancia G., Dal Palu С. et al. Calcium antagonist lacidipine slows down progression of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis: Principal results of the European Lacidipine Study on Atherosclerosis (ELSA), a randomized, double-blind, long-term trial. Circulation 2002: 106: 2422-2427. RT

101. Benetos A., Safar M., Rudnich A., Smulyan H., Richard J.L. Ducimetiere P., Guize L. Pulse pressure: a predictor of long-term cardiovascular mortality in a French male population. Hypertension 1997; 30: 1410-1415.OS

102. Safar M.E., Froblich E.D. The arterial system in hypertension: a prospective riew. Hypertension 1995: 26; 10-14. RV

103. Giannattasio C., Mancia G. Arterial distensibility in humans. Modulating mechanisms, alterations in diseases and effects of treatment. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 1889-1900. RV

104. Laurent S., Boutouyrie P., Asmar R., Gautier L., Laloux В., Guize L. et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001: 37; 1236-1241. OS

105. Раuса A.L., O'Rourke M.F., Kon N.D. Prospective evaluation of a method for estimating ascending aortic pressure from the radial artery pressure waveform. Hypertension 2001; 38: 932-937.

106. Safar M.E., Blacher J., Pannier B., Guerin A.P., Marchais S.J., Guyonvareh P.M., London G.M. Central pulse pressure and mortality in end-stage renal disease. Hypertension 2002: 39: 735-738. OS

107. Panza J.A., Quyyumi A.A., Brush J.E. Jr., Epstein S.E. Abnormal endotheliumdependent vascular relaxation in patients with essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 1990: 323: 22-27.

108. Luscher T.F., Nanhoutte P.M. The endothelium: modulator of cardiovascular function. BocaRaton. Florida: CRC Press: 1990. RV

109. Taddei S., Salvetti A. Endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension: clinical implications. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1671-1674. RV

110. Drexler H. Endothelial dysfunction: clinical implications. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1997: 39: 287-324. RV

111. Culleton B.F., Larson M.G., Wilson P.W. Evans J.C. Parfrey P.S., Levy D. Cardiovascular disease and mortality in a community-based cohort with mild renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 1999: 56: 2214-2219. OS

112. Levey A.S., Bosch J.P., Lewis J.B., Greene T., Rogers N., Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a mew prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 461-470. OS

113. Messerli F.H., Frohlich E.D., Dreslinski G.R., Suarez D.H., Aristimuno G.G., Serum uric acid in essential hypertension: an indicator of renal vascular involvement. Ann Intern Med 1980; 93: 817-821. OS

114. Ruilope L.M., Rodicio J.L. Clinical relevance of proteinuria and microalbuminuria.Curr Opin Nephrol Hyperlens 1993: 2: 962-967. RV

115. Mogensen C.E. Microalbuminuria and hypertension with focus on type 1 and 2 diabetes. J Intern Med 2003; 254: (in press). RV

116. Redon.J., Williams B. Microalbuminuria in essential hypertension: redefining the threshold. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 353-355.

117. Gerstein H.C., Mann J.F.,. Yi Q., Zinman B., Dinneen S.F., Hoogwerf B. et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA 2001; 286: 421 -426. OS

118. Jensen J.S., Feldt-Rasmussen B., Strandgaard S., Schroll M., Borch-Johnsen К. Arterial hypertension. microalbuminuria, and risk of ischemic heart disease. Hypertension 2000;.15: 898-903. OS

119. Bigazzi R., Bianchi S., Baldari D., Campese V.M. Microalbuminuria predicts cardiovascular events and renal insufficiency in patients with essential hypertension. J Hypertens 1998: 16; 1325-1333. OS

120. Hillege H.L., Fidler V., Diercks G.F.H., van Gilst W.H., de Zeeuw D., van Veldbuisen D.J. et al. for the Prevention of Renal and Vascular Bud Stage Disease (PREVEND) Study Croup, Urinary albumin excretion predicts cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in general population. Circulation 2002: 106: 1777-1782, OS

121. Manjunath G., Tighionart H., Ibrahim H., MacLeod B., Salem D.N., Griffith J.L. et al. Level of kidney function as a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular outcomes in the community. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003: 41: 47-55. RV

122. Ruilope L.M., van Veldbuisen D.J., Ritz E., Litscher T.F. Renal function: the Cinderella of cardiovascular risk profile. J Am Coll Cardiol 22001; 38: 1782-1787. RW

123. Houlihan C.A., Tsalamandris C., Akdeniz A., Jerums G.Albumin to creatinine ratio: a screening test with limitations. Am J Kidney His 2002: 39: 1183-1189.

124. Keith N.H., Wagener H.P., Barker M.W. Some different types of essential hypertension: their course and prognosis. Am J Med Sci 1939: 197: 332-343. OS

125. Stanlon A. Ocular damage in hypertension. In: Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Rodicio J.L. (editors): Hypertension. London: McGraw-Hill International: 2001, pp. 73-78. RV

126. Minematsu K., Omae T. Detection of damage to the brain. In: Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Rodicio J.L. (editors): Hypertension. London: McGraw Hill International; 2001. pp. 63-71. RV

127. Price T.R., Manolio Т.А., Kronmal H.A., Kitner S.J., Yue N.C., Robbins J. et al. Silent brain infarction on magnetic resonance imaging and neurological abnormalities in community-dwelling older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Stroke 1997; 28: 1158-1164. OS

128. Liao D., Cooper L., Cai J., Toole J.F., Bryan N.R., Richard G. et al. Presence and severity of cerebral white matter lesions and hypertension, its treatment, and its control: The ARIC Study. Stroke 1996; 27: 2262-2270. OS

129. Skoog I., Lerufelt B., Landahi S., Palmertz B., Andreasson L.A., Nilsson L et. al. 15-year longitudinal study of blood pressure and dementia. Lancet 1996; 347: 1141-1145. OS

130. Kilander L., Nyman H., Boberg M., Hansson L., Lithell H. Hypertension is related to cognitive impairment: A 20-year follow-up of 999 men. Hypertension 1998:31: 780-786.OS

131. Campos G., Segura J., Rodicio J.L. Investigations in secondary hypertension: renal disease. In: Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Rodicio J.L. (editors): Hypertension. London: McGraw Hill International; 2001. pp. 119-126. RV

132. Keane W.F., Eknoyan G. Proteinuria, albuminuria, risk assessment, detection, elimination (PARADE): a position paper of the National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 1004-1010. GL

133. Koler H., Wandel E., Brunck B.Acanthocyturia - a characteristic marker for glomerular bleeding. Kidney Int 1991: 40: 115-120. OS

134. Krumme W., Blum U., Schwertfeger E., Flugel P., Hollstin F., Schollmeyer P., Rump L.C. Diagnosis of renovascular disease by intra-and extrarenal Doppler scanning. Kidney Int 1996; 50: 1288-1292. OS

135. Bloch M.J., Pickering T.G., Diagnostic strategies in renovascular hypertension. In: Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Rodicio J.L. (editors): Hypertension. London: McGraw Hill International; 2001, pp. 87-97. RV

136. Vashinder B.G.G., Nelemans P.J., Kessels A.G.H., Kroon A.A.,. De Leeuw P.W., van Eugelshoven J.M.A. Diagnostic tests for renal artery stenosis in patients suspected of having renovascular hypertension: a metaanalysis. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135:401-411. MA

137. Fain S.B., King B.F., Breen J.P., Kruger D.G., Rieder S.J. High-spatialresolulion contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the renal arteries: a prospective comparison with digital subtraction angiography. Radiology 2001; 218: 481-490. OS

138. Bravo E.L. Evolving concepts in (hepathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma. Endocrine Rev 1994: 15: 356-368. RV

139. Sjoberg R.J., Simcic K.J., Kidd G.S. The clonidine suppression test for pheocbromocytoma. A review of its utility and pitfalls. Arch Intern Med 1992: 152: 1193-1197. RV

140. Ganguly A. Primary aldosteronism. N Engl J Med 1998; 339; 1828-1834. RV

141. Gordon R.D. Diagnostic investigations in primary aldosteronism. In: Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Rodicio J.L. (editors): Hypertension. London: McGraw Hill International; 2001, pp. 101-114. RV

142. Blumenfeld J.D., Sealey J.E., Schlussel V., Vaughan E.D., Jr. Sos T.A., Atlas S.A. et al. Diagnosis and treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism. Ann Intern Med 1994: 121: 877-885. OS

143. Gordon R.D., Slowasser M,, Tunny T.J., Klemm S.A., Rutherford J.C. Highincidence of primary aldosteronism in 199 patients referred with hypertension. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1994; 21: 315-318. OS

144. Phillips J.L., McClellan M.W., Pezzullo J.C., Rayford W., Choyke P.L., Herman A.A. et al. Predictive value of preoperative tests in discriminating bilateral adrenal hyperplasia from an aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000: 85: 4526-4533. OS

145. Orth D.N. Cushing's syndrome. N Engl J Med 1995: 332: 791-803.

146. Nieman L.K. Diagnostic tests for Cushing's syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci 2002; 970: 112-118. RV

147. Luft F.C. Molecular genetics of human hypertension. J Hypertens 1998; 16: 1871-1878. RV

148. Melander O. Genetic factors of hypertension - what is known and what does it mean? Blood Press 2001; 10: 254-270. RV

149. Pausova Z., Tremblay J., Hamet P. Gene-environment interactions in hypertension. Current Hypertens Rep 1999: 1: 42-50. RV

150. Evans W.E., Ralling M.V. Pharmacogenomics: translating functional genomics into rational therapeutics. Science 1999; 286: 487-491.

151. Shimkets R.A., Warnock D.G., Bositis C.M., Nelson-Williams C., Hansson J.H., Schambelan M. et at. Liddle's syndrome: heritable human lyyper tension caused by mutations in the beta subunit of the ephitelial sodium channel. Cell 1994; 79: 407-414.

152. Ulick S., Levine L.S., Gunczler P., Zanconato G., Ramirez L.C., Rauh W. et al. A syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess associated with defects in the peripheral metabolism of Cortisol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979: 49: 757-764.

153. Sutherland D.J., Ruse J.L., Laidlaw J.C. Hypertension, increased aldosterone secretion and low renin activity relieved by dexamethasone. Can Med Assoc J 1996; 95: 1109-1119.

154. PROGRESS Collaborative Study Group. Randomised trial of perindopril based blood pressure-lowering regimen among 6108 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001; 358: 1033-1041. RT

155. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Effects if an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2000: 342: 145-153. RT

156. Schrier R.W., Estacio R.O., Esler A., Mehler P. Effects of aggressive blood pressure control in normotensive type 2 diabetic patients on albuminuria, retinopathy and stroke. Kidney hit 2002; 61: 1086-1097. RT

157. Nasan R.S., Larson M.G., Leip E.P., Evans J.C., O'Donnell C.J., Kannel W.B., Levy D. Impact of high-normal blood pressure on the risk of cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1291-1297. OS

158. Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. The effect of treatment on mortality in 'mild hypertension: results of the Hypertension Detection and follow-up Program. N Engl J Med 1982; 307: 976-980. RT

159. ZanchettiA., Hansson L., Menard J., Leonetti G., Rahn K. Warnold I., Wedet H. Risk, assessment and treatment benefit in intensively treated hypertensive patients of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) study for the HOT Study Group. J Hypertens 2001; 19: 819-825. OS

160. Hansson L., Zanchetti A., Carruthers S.G., Dahlof B., Elmfeldt D., Julius S. et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet 1998; 351: 1755-1762. РТ

161. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood pressure control and risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. UKPDS38. BMJ 1998: 317; 703-713.RT

162. Estacio R.O., Jeffers B.W., Hiall W.R., Biggerstaff S.L., Gifford N., Schrier R.W. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes inpatients with non-insulin independent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1998; 338: 645-652. RT

163. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of ACE Inhibitors, calcium antagonists, and other blood-pressure-lowering drugs; results of prospectively designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet 2000; 356, 1955-1964. MA

164. Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Clement D., Flmfeldt D., Julius S., Rosenthal T. et al. on behalf of the HOT Study Group. Benefits and risks of more intensive blood pressure lowering in hypertensive patients of the HOT Study with different risk profiles: does a J-shaped curve exist in smokers? J Hypertens 2003: 21: 797-804. RT

165. Mancia G., Grassi G. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure control in antihypertensive drug trials. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1461-1464. RV

166. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators fort he ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2000: 283: 1967-1975. RT

167. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering treatment to prevent Heart Attack Trial (AILHAT). JAMA 2002; 288: 2981-2997. RT

168. Zanchetti A., Ruilope L.M. Antihypertensive treatment in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: what guidance from recent controlled randomized trials? J Hypertens 2002; 20: 2099-2110. RV

169. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) Study investigators. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people и with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Lancet 2000; 355: 253-259. RT

170. Adler A.L., Stratton I.M., Neil H.A., Yudkin J.S., Matthews D.R., Cull С.A. et al. Association of systolic blood pressure with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS36): prospective observational study. BMJ 2000: 321: 412-429. OS

171. Doll R., Peto R., Wheatley K., Gray R., Sutherland I. Mortality in relation to smoking: 40 years' observational study on male British doctors. BMJ 1994: 309: 901-91. LOS

172. Primatesla P., Falaschetti E., Gupta S., Marmot M.G., Poulter N.R. Association between smoking and blood pressure: evidence from the health survey for England. Hypertension 2001: 37: 187-193. OS

173. Omvik P. How smoking affects blood pressure. Blood Press 1996: 5: 71-77.

174. Medical Research Council Working Party. MRC trial of treatment of mild hypertension: principal results. Medical Research Council. BMJ 1985: 291: 97-104. RT

175. The IPPPSH Collaborative Group. Cardiovascular risk and risk factors in a randomized trial of treatment based on the beta-blocker oxprenolol: the International Prospective Primary Prevention Study in Hypertension (IPPPSH) J Hypertens 1985: 3: 379-392. RT

176. Silagy С., Mant D., Fowler G., Lodge M. Meta-analysis on efficacy of nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation. Lancet 1994; 343: 139-142. MA

177. The Tobacco Use and Dependence Clinical Practice Guideline Panel, Staff, and Consortium Representatives. A clinical practice guideline for treating tobacco use and dependence: A US Public Health Service report. JAMA 2000; 283: 3244-3254. GL

178. Tonstad S., Farsang C., Klane. Lewis K., Manolis A., Perrouboud A.P. et al. Buproprin SR for smoking cessation in smokers with cardiovascular disease: a multicentre, randomised study. Eur Heart J 2003: 24: 947-956. RT

179. Puddey I.B., Beilin L.J., Rakie V. Alcohol, hypertension and the cardio vascular system: a critical appraisal. Addiction Biol 1997; 2: 159-170. RV

180. Wannamethee S.G., ShaperA.G. Patterns of alcohol intake and risk of stroke in middle-aged British men. Stroke 1996: 27: 1033-1039. OS

181. Puddey I.B., Beilin L.J., Vandongen R. Regular alcohol use raises blood pressure in treated hypertensive subjects. A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1987; 1: 647-651. RT

182. Stamler J. Epidemiologic findings on body mass and blood pressure in adults. Ann Epidemiol 1991: 1: 347-362. OS

183. Reid C.M., Dart A.M., Dewar E.M., Jennings G.L., Interactions between the effects of exercise and weight loss on risk factors, cardiovascular haemodynamics and left ventricular structure in overweight subjects. J Hypertens 1994: 12: 291-301. OS

184. Puddey I.B., Parker M., Beilin L.J., Vandongen R., Masarei J.R. Effects of alcohol and caloric restrictions on blood pressure and serum lipids in overweight men. Hypertension 1992: 20: 533-541. OS

185. Whelton P.K., Appel L.J., Espeland M.A., Apptegate W.B., Ellinger W.H., Jr Kostis J.B. et al. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of non-pharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). TONE Collaborative Research Group. JAMA 1998; 279: 839-846. RT

186. Sandvik L., Erikssen J., Thaulow E., Erikssen G., Mundal R., Rodahl K. Physical fitness as a predictor of mortality among healthy, middle-aged Norwegian men. N Engl J Med 1995; 328: 533-537. OS

187. Jennings G.L. Exercise and blood pressure: Walk, run or swim? J Hypertens 1997; 15: 567-569. RV

188. Arakawa K. Antihypertensive mechanism of exercise. J Hypertens 1993; 11: 223-229. RV

189. Fagard R.H. Exercise characteristics and the blood pressure response to dynamic physical training. Med Set Sports and Exerc 2001; 33 (suppl.): S484-S492. RV

190. Puddey I.B., Cox K. Exercise lowers blood pressure - sometimes? Or did Pheidippides have hypertension? J Hypertens 1995: 13: 1229-1233. RV

191. Law M.R. Epidemiological evidence on salt and blood pressure. Am J Hypertens 1997: 10 (suppl): 42S-45S. RV

192. Cutler J.A., Tollman D., Alexander P.S. Randomised controlled trials of sodium reduction: an overview. Am J Clin Nulr 1997: 65 (suppl. 2): 643S-651S. MA

193. Beckmann S.L., Os I., Kjeldsen S.E., Eide I.K., Westheim A.S., Hjermann I. Effect of dietary counselling on blood pressure and arterial plasma catecholamines in primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 1995; 8: 704-711. OS

194. Margetts B.M., Beilin L.J., Vandongen R., Armstrong B.K. Vegetarian diet in mild hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. BMJ 1986; 293: 1468-1471. RT

195. Bao D.Q., Mori Т.А., Burke V., Puddey I.B., Beilin L.J. Effects oj dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in over-weight hypertensives. Hypertension 1998: 32: 710-717. RT

196. Sacks F.M., Svetkey L.P., Vollmer W.M., Appel L.J., Bray G.A., Harsha D. et al. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASHSodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001: 344: 3-10. RT

197. Zanchetti A., Mancia G. Benefits and cost-effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy. The actuarial versus the intervention trial approach.J Hypertens 1996; 14: 809-811.

198. Fagard R.H., Staessen J.A., Thijs L. Results of intervention trials of antihypertensive treatment versus placebo, no or less intensive treatment. In: Mancia G., Chalmers J., Julius S., Saruta T., Weber M., Ferrari A., Wilkinson I, (editors): Manual of hypertension. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2002, pp. 21-33. RV

199. Collins R., MacMahon S. Blood pressure, antihypertensive drug treatment and the risk of stroke and of coronary heart disease. Br Med Bull 1994; 50: 272-298. MA

200. Staessen J.A., Gasowski J. Wang J.G., Thijs L., Den Hand E., Boissel J-P et al. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet 2000; 355: 865-872. MA

201. Thijs L., Fagard R., Lijnen P., Staessen J., Van Hoof R., Amery A. A meta-analysis of outcome trials in elderly hypertensives. J Hypertens 1992; 10: 1103-1109. MA

202. Gueyffier F., Boutitie F., Boissel J.P., Pocock S., Coope J., Cutler J. et al. the effect of antihypertensive drug treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in women and men. Results from a meta-analysis o/ individual patient data in randomised controlled trials. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 761-767. MA

203. Lithell H., Hansson L., Skogg L., Elmfeldt D., Hofman A., Olofsson В. et al. for the SCOPE Study Group. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE). Principal results of a randomised double-blind intervention trial. J Hypertens 2003: 21: 875-886. RT

204. Brenner B.M., Cooper M.E., De Zeeuw D., Keane W.F., Mitch W.E., Parving H.H. et al. Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 861-469. RT

205. Lewis E.J., Hunsicker L.G., Clarke W.R., Ber I.T., Pohl M.A., Lewis J.В. et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 851-860. RT

206. Parving H-H., Lehnert H., Brochner-Mortensen J., Gomis R., Andersen S., Arner P. The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy inpatients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001: 345: 870-878. RT

207. Borhani N.O., Mercuri M., Borhani P.A., Buckalew V.M., Canossa-Terris M., Carr A.A. et al. Final outcome results of the Multicenter Isradipine Diuretic Atherosclerosis Study (MIDAS). A randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1996; 276: 785-791. RT

208. National Intervention Cooperative Study in Elderly Hypertensives Study Group. Randomized double-blind comparison of a calcium antagonist and a diuretic in elderly hypertensives. Hypertension 1999:34: 1129-1133. RT

209. Hansson L., Lindholm L.H., Ekbom T., Dahlof B., Lanke J., Schersten В. et al. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study. Lancet 1999; 354: 1751-1756. RT

210. Hansson L., Hedner T., Lund-Johansen P., Kjeldsen S.E., Lindholm L.H., Syvertsen J.O. et al. Randomised trial of effects of calcium antagonists compared with diuretics and beta-blockers on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Nordic Diltiazem (NORDIL) study. Lancet 2000; 356: 359-365. RE

211. Agabiti Rosei E., Dal Palu C., Leonetti G., Magnani B., Pessina A., Zanchetti A. for the VNAS investigators. Clinical results of the Verapamil in Hypertension and Atherosclerosis Study. J Hypertens 1997; 15: 1337-1344. RT

212. Brown M.J., Palmer C.R., Castaigne A., de Leeuw P.W., Mancia G., Rosenthal T., Ruilope L.M. Morbidity and mortality in patients randomised to double-blind treatment with a long-acting calcium-channel blocker or diuretic in the International Nifedipine GITS study-Intervention as a Goal in Hypertension Treatment (INSIGHT). Lancet 2000; 356: 366-372. RT

213. Black H.R., Elliot W.J., Grandist G., Grambsch P., Lucente T., White W.B. et al. for the CONVINCE Research Group. Principal results of the Controlled Onset Verapamil Investigation of Cardiovascular Endpoints (CONVINCE) trial. JAMA 2003: 289: 2073-2082. RT

214. Staessen J.A., Wang J., Thijs L. Cardiovascular prevention and blood pressure reduction: a qualitative overview updated until 1 March 2003.J Hypertens 2003; 21: 1055-1076. MA

215. UК Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy of atenolorand captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. BMJ 1998: 317: 713-720. RT

216. Hansson L., Lindholm L.H., Niskanen L., Lanke J., Hedner T., Niklason A. et all Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial. Lancet 1999; 353: 611-616. RT

217. Wing L.M.H., Reid C.M., Ryan P., Beilin L.J., Brown M.A., Jennings G.L.R. et al. A comparison of outcomes with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and diuretics for hypertension in the elderly. N Engl Med 2003; 348: 583-592. RT

218. Dahlof B., Devereux R.B., Kjeldsen S.E., Julius S., Beevers G., de Faire U. et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002: 359: 995-1003. RT

219. Jennings G.L., Wong J. Reversibility of left ventricular hypertrophy and malfunction by antihypertensive treatment. In: Hansson L., Birkenhager W.H. (editors). Handbook of Hypertension. Vol. 18: Assessment of hypertensive organ damage. Amsterdam: Elsevier: 1997. pp. 184-229. MA

220. Schmieder R.E., Schlaich M.F., Klingheil A.U., Martus P. Update on reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension (a meta-analysis of all randomized double-blind studies until December 1998). Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998; 13: 564-569. MA

221. Gosse P., Sheridan D.J., Zannad F., Dubourg O., Gueret P., Karpov Y. et al. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients treated with indapamide SR 1,5 nig versus enalapril 20 mg; the LIFЕ study. J Hypertens 2000: 18: 1465-1475. RT

222. Terpstra W.L., May J.F., Smit A.J., de Graeff P.A., Havinga Т.К., van der Veur E. et al. Long-term effects of amlodipine and lisinopril on left ventricular mass and diastolic function in elderly, previously untreated hypertensive patients: the ELVERA trial. J Hypertens 2001; 19:303-309. RT

223. Devereux R.B., Palmieri V., Sharpe N., De Qualtro V., Bella J.N., de Simone G. et al. Effects of once-daily angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and calcium channel blockade-based antihypertensive treatment regimens on left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic Jilting hi hypertension. The Prospective Randomized Enalapril Study Evaluating Regression of Ventricular Enlargement (PRESERVE) trial. Circulation 2001; 104: 1248-1254. RT

224. Zanchetti A., Ruilope L.M., Cuspidi С., Масса G., Verschuren J., Kerselaers W. Comparative effects of the ACE inhibitor fosinopril and the calcium antagonist amlodipine on left ventricular hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive patients. Results of FOAM, a multicenter European study [abstract]. J Hypertens 2001; 19 (suppl. 2): S92. RT

225. Cuspidi C., Muiesan M.L. Valagussa L., Salvetti M., Di Biagio С., Agahiti Rosei E. et al. on behalf of the CATCH investigators. Comparative effects of candesartan and enalapril on left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essentia/ hypertension: the Candesartan Assessment in the Treatment of Cardiac Hypertrophy (CATCH) study. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 2293-2300. RT

226. Agahiti Rosei E., Muiesan M.L., Trimarco B., Reid J., Salvetti A., Hennig M., Zanchetti A. Changes of LV mass and ABPM during long-term antihypertensive treatment in ELSA [abslract]. J Hypertens 2002: 20 (suppl. 4): S4. RT

227. Thurmann P.A., Kenedi P., Schmidt A., Harder S., Rietbrock N. Influence of the angiotensin II antagonist valsartan on left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with essential hypertension. Circulation 1998: 98: 2037-2042. RT

228. Mahnqvist K., Kahan T., Edner M., Held C., Hogg A. Lind L. et al. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in human hypertension with irbesartan. J Hypertens 2001; 19: 1167-1176. RT

229. Dahlof B., Zanchetti A., Diez J., Nicholls M.G., Yu C.M., Barrios V. et al. Effects of losartan and atenolol on left ventricular mass and neurohormonal profile in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1855-1864. RT

230. Perlini S., Muiesan M.L., Cuspidi C., Sampieri L., Trimarco B., Aurigemma G.P. et al. Mid wall mechanics are improved after regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy and normalization of chamber geometry Circulation 2001; 103: 678-683. OS

231. Levy D., Salomon M., D'Agostino R.B., Belanger A.J., Kannel W.B. Prognostic implications of baseline electrocardiographic features and their serial changes in subjects with left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 1994: 90: 1786-1793. OS

232. Mathew J., Sleight P., Lonn E., Johnstone D., Pogue J., Yi Q. et al. Reduction of cardiovascular risk by regress/on of electrocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril. Circulation 2001; 104: 1615-1621. RT

233. Devereux R.B., Watchtell K., Gerdts E., Boman K., Nieminen M.S. Papademetrion В. et al. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy: treatment effects and prognostic implications in the LIFE trial [abstract] J Hypertens 20 (suppl. 4): S4. RT

234. Muiesan M.L., Salvetti M., Rizzoni D., Castellano M., Donate F., Agabiti Rosei E. Association of change in left ventricular mass with prognosis during long-term antihypertensive treatment. J Hypertens 1995: 13: 1091-1095. OS

235. Verdecchia P., Schillaci G., Borgioni C., Ciucci A., Gattohigio R., Zampi I. et al. Prognostic significance of serial changes in left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Circulation 1998; 97: 48-54. OS

236. Pitt B., Byington R.P., Furberg C.D., Hunninghake D.B., Mancini G.B.J., Miller M.E., Riley W. Effect of amlodipine on the progression of atherosclerosis and the occurrence of clinical events. Circulation 2000: 102: 1503-1510. RT

237. Simon A., Gariepy J., Moyse D., Levenson J. Differential effects of nifedipine and coamilozide on the progression of early carotid wall changes. Circulation 2001; 103: 2949-2954. RT

238. MacMohon S., Sharpe N., Gamble G., Clague A., Mhurchu C.N., Clark T. et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the angiotensin-convert ingenzyme inhibitor, ramipril. in patients with coronary or other occlusive arterial disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36: 438-443. RT

239. Lonn E.M., Yusuf S., Dzavik V., Doris C.I., Yi Q., Smith S. et al. Effects of ramipril and vitamin E on atherosclerosis: The Study to Evaluate Carotid Utrasound changes in patients treated with Ramiprit and vitamin E (SECURE). Circulation 2001; 103: 919-925. RT

240. Zanchetti A., Crepaldi G., Bond G., Gallus G., Veglia M., Mancia G. Effects of fosinopril and pravastatin on progression of asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis in hypertension: results of the Plaque Hypertension Lipid Lowering Italian Study (PHYLLIS) [Abstract]. J Hypertens 2003; 21 (suppl. 4): S346.

241. Estacio R.O., Jeffers B.W., Gifford N., Schrier R.W. Effect of blood pressure control on diabetic microvascular complications inpatients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000; 23 (suppl. 2): B54-B64.RT

242. Lindholm L.H., Ibsen H., Dahlof B., Devereux R.B., Beevers G., de Faire U. et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality inpatients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002; 359: 1004-1010. RT

243. Jafar T.H., Schmid C.H., Landa M., Giatras I., Toto R., Remuzzi G. et al. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of noudiabetic renal disease. A meta-analysis of patient-level data. Ann Intern Med 2001; 135: 73-87. MA

244. Wright J.T., Bakris G., Greene T., Agodoa L.Y., Appel L.J., Charleston J. et al. for the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension Study Group. Effect of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive drug class on progression of hypertensive kidney disease: results from AASK Trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 2421-2431. RT

245. Agodoa L.Y., Appel L., Bakris G.L., Beck G., Bourgoignie J., Briggs J.P. et al. for the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Study Group. Effect of Ramipril vs Amlodipine on Renal Outcomes in Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis. A Randomized Controlled Trial. JAMA 2001; 285: 2719-2728. RT

246. Lindholm L.H, Ibsen H., Borch-Johnsen K., Olsen M.H., Wachtell K., Dahlof B. et al. Risk of new-onset diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1879-1886. RT

247. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. Results inpatients with diastolic blood pressures averaging 115 through 129 mm Hg. JAMA 1967; 202: 1028-1034. RT

248. Veterans Administration Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Effects of treatment on morbidity in hypertension. II. Results inpatients with diastolic blood pressure averaging 90 through 114 mmlig. JAMA 1970: 213: 1143-1152. RT

249. Parati G., Pomidossi G., Albini F., Malaspina D., Mancia G. Relationship of 24-hour blood pressure mean and variability to severity of target-organ damage in hypertension. J Hypertens 1987; 5: 93-98. OS

250. Frallola A., Parati G., Cuspidi С., Albini F., Mancia G. Prognostic value of 24-hour blood pressure variability. J Hypertens 1993: 11: 1133-1137. 0S

251. Gueyffier F., Bulpitt С., Boissel J.P., Schron E., Ekhom T., Fagard R. et al. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 1999: 353: 793-796. MA

252. Gong L., Zhang W., Zhu Y., Zhu J., Kong D., Page V. et al. Shanghai trial of nifedipine in the elderly (STONE).J Hypertens 1996; 16: 1237-l245. CT

253. Liu L., Wang J.L., Gong L., Liu G., Staessen J.A. For the Syst-China Collaborative Group. Comparison of active treatment and placebo in older Chinese patients with isolated systolic hypertension. J Hypertens 1998; 16: 1823-1829. CT

254. Kjeldsen S.E., Dahlof B., Devereux R.B., Julius S., Aurup P., Edelman J. et al. Effects of losartan on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hyper trophy: a Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction (LIFE) sub-study. JAMA 2002; 288: 1491-1498. RT

255. Fagard R.H., Van den Enden M., Leeman M., Warling X. Survey on treatment of hypertension and implementation of WHO-ISH risk stratification in primary care in Belgium. J Hypertens 2002; 20: 1297-1302. OS

256. Somes G.W., Pahor M., Shorr R.I., Cushman W.C., Applegate W.B. The role of diastolic blood pressure when treating isolated systolic hypertension. Arch Int Med 1999: 159: 2004-2009. RT

257. Simonson D.C. Etiology and prevalence of hypertension in diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 1988; 11: 821 -827. RV 258 The Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Report of the Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2002; 25 (suppl. 1): 5-20. GL

258. Amos A.F., McCarty D.J., Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010.Diab Med 1997; 14 (suppl. 5): S1-S85. 0S

259. Reaven G.M., Lithell H., Landsherg L. Hypertension and associated metabolic abnormalities-the role of insulin resistance and the sympathoadrenal system. N Engl J Med 1996, 334: 374-381. RV

260. Haffner S.M. The prediabetic problem: development of non-insulindependent diabetes mellitus and related abnormalities. J Diabet Compile 1997: 11: 69-76. RV

261. Epstein M., Sowers J.R. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Hypertension 1992; 19: 403-418. RV

262. Hypertension in Diabetes Study (HDS): 1. Prevalence of hypertension in newly presenting type 2 diabetic patients and the association with risk factors for cardiovascular and diabetic complications. J Hypertens 1993: 11: 309-317. OS

263. Tarnow L., Rossing P., Gall M.A., Nielsen F.S., Parving H.H. Prevalence of arterial hypertension in diabetic patients before and after the JNC-V. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 1247-1251. OS

264. Grossman E., Messerli F.H. Diabetic and hypertensive heart disease. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 304-310. RV

265. Miettinen H., Haffner S.M., Lehto S., Ronnemaa T., Pyorala K., Laakso M. Proteinuria predicts stroke and other atherosclerotic vascular disease events in nondiabetic and non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects. Stroke 1996; 27: 2033-2039. OS

266. Dinneen S.F., Gerstein H.C. The association of microalbuminuria and mortality in поп-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A systematic overview of the literature. Arch Intern Med 1997; 157: 1413-1418. MA

267. Teuscher A., Schnell H., Wilson P.W. Incidence of diabetic retinopathy and relationship to baseline plasma glucose and blood pressure. Diabetes Care 1988; 11:246-251. OS

268. Dillon J.J. The quantitative relationship between treated blood pressure and progression of diabetic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 22: 798-802. RV

269. Walker W.G. Hypertension-related renal injury: a major contributor to end-stage renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 1993; 22: 164-173. RV

270. Colditz G.A., Willett W.C., Rotnitzky A., Manson J.E. Weight gain as a risk factor for clinical diabetes mellitus in women. Ann Intern Med 1995; 122: 481-486.

271. Rocchini A.P. Obesity hypertension, sail sensitivity and insulin resistance. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2000; 10: 287-294. RV

272. Mogensen C.E. Long-term antihypertensive treatment inhibiting progression of diabetic nephropathy. BMJ 1982; 285: 685-688. RT

273. Lewis E.J., Hunsicker L.G, Bain R.P., Rohde R.D. The effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition on diabetic nephropathy. The Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 1456-1462. RT

274. PATS Collaborative Group. Post-stroke antihypertensive treatment study Clin Med J 1995; 108: 710-717. RT

275. International Society of Hypertension statement on the management of blood pressure in acute stroke. J Hypertens 2003: 21: 665-672. GL

276. Flack J.M., Neaton J., Grimm Rjr., Shin J., Cutler J., Ensrud K., MacMahon S. Blood pressure and mortality among men with prior myocardial infarction. Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Research Group. Circulation 1995; 92: 2437-2445. OS

277. Stokes J., Kannel W.B., Wolf P.A., D'Agostino R.B., Cupples L.A. Blood pres sure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Study - 30 years of follow-up. Hypertension 1989; 13 (suppl. 1): 113-118. OS

278. Yusuf S., Peto R., Lewis J., Collins R., Sleight P. Beta-blockade during and after myocardial infarction: an overview of the randomised trials. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1985; 27: 335-371. MA

279. Doughty R.N., Rodgers A., Sharpe N., MacMahon S. Effects of betablocker therapy on mortality in patients with heart failure. A systematic overview of randomized controlled trials. Eur Heart J 1997; 18: 560-565. MA

280. I.onn E.M., Yusuf S., Jha P., Montague T.J., Teo K.K., Benedict C.R., Pitt B. Emerging role of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in cardiac and vascular protection. Circulation 1994: 90: 2056-2069. RV

281. Garg R., Yusuf S. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995; 273: 1450-1456. MA

282. Pitt B., Zannad F., Remme W.J., Cody R., Castaigne A., Perez A. et al., for the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 709- 717. RT

283. Pitt B., Remme W., Zannad F., Neaton J., Martinez F., Roniker B. et al., for the Eplerenone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study investigators. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, inpatients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. TV Engl J Med 2003: 348: 1309-1321. RT

284. Zanchetti A. What have we learned and what haven't we from clinical trials on hypertension? In: Laragh J.H., Brenner B.M. (editors): Hypertension, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press; 1995, pp. 2509-2529. RV

285. Mclnnes G.T. Size isn't everything. ALLHAT in perspective. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 459-461.

286. Williams B. Treating hypertension: it is not how you start but where you end that matters. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 455-457.

287. Pitt B., Poole- Wilson P.A., Segal R., Martinez F.A., Dickstein K., Camm A.J. et al. Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial - tbe Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. Lancet 2000; 355: 1582-1587. RT

288. Cohn J.N., Tognoni G. for the Valsartan Heart Failure Trial Investigators. A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1667-1675. RT

289. Kaplan N.M. The meaning of ALLHAT. J Hypertens 2003; 21: 233-234.

290. Packer M., O'Connor C.M., Ghali J.K., Pressler M.L., Carson P.E., Belkin R.N. et al. Effect of amlodipine on morbidity and mortality in severe chronic heart failure. Prospective Randomized Amlodipine in Survival Evaluation Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996; 335: 1107-1114. RT

291. Ruilope L.M., Lahera V., Rodicio J.L., Romero J.C. Are renal hemodynamics a key factor in the development and maintenance of arterial hyperiension in humans? Hypertension 1994: 23: 3-9. RV

292. Perera G.A. Hypertensive vascular disease: description and natural history. J Chronic Dis 1955; 1: 33-42. OS

293. Nakao N., Yoshimura A., Morita H., Takada M., Kayano T., Ideura T. Combination treatment of angiotensin-II receptor blocker and augiolensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor in non-diabetic renal disease (COOPERATE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003; 361: 117-124. RT

294. Gaede P., Vedel P., Larsen N., Jensen G.V., Parving H.H., Pedersen O. Multifactorial intervention and cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2003; 348: 383-393. RT

295. Consensus Report: National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. Am J Obslet Gynecol 1990; 163: 1689-1712. GL

296. Levine R.J., Ewell M.G., Hauth J.C., Caret L.B., Catalano P.M., Morris C.D. et al. Should the definition of preeclampsia include a rise in diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 15 mm Hg to a level >90 mm Hg in association with proteinuria? Am J Obstel Gynecol 2000; 183: 787-792. GL

297. Helewa M.E., Burrows R.F., Smith J., Williams K., Brain P., Rabkin S.W. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society Consensus Conference: 1. Definitions, evaluation and classification of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J 1997; 157: 715-725. GL

298. Sibai B.M., Mabie W.C., Shamsa F., Vilnar M.A., Anderson C.D. A comparison of no medication versus methyldopa or labetalol in chronic hypertension during pregnancy. Am J Obslet Gynecol 1990; 162: 960-967. RT

299. Gruppo di Studio Iperlensione in Gravidanza. Nifedipine versus expectant management in mild to moderate hypertension In pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1998; 105: 718-722. RT

300. Moutquin J-M., Garner P.R., Burrows R.E., Rey E., Helewa M.E., Lange I.R., Rabkin S.W. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society Consensus Conference: 2. Nonpharmacologic management and prevention of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Can Med Assoc J 1997; 157: 907-919. GL

301. Atallah A.N., Hofmeyr G.J., Duley L. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy for preventing hypertensive disorders and related problems (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 1. Oxford: Update Software; 2000. MA

302. Olsen S., Secher N.J., Tahor A., Weber T., Walker J.J. Gluud С. Randomised clinical trials offish oil supplementation in high risk pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 2000; 107: 382-395. MA

303. Knight M., Duley L., Henderson-Smart D.J., King J.F. Antiplatelet agents and preeclampsia (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library Issue 1. Oxford, Update Software, 2000. MA

304. Khedun S.M, Moodley J., Naicker T., Maharaj B. Drug management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Pharmacol Ther 1997: 74: 221-258. RV

305. de Sviet M. Maternal blood pressure and birth weight. Lancet 2000: 355: 81-82.

306. von Dadelszen P., Ornstein M.P., Bull S.B., Logan A.G., Koren G., Magee L.A. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2000; 355: 87-92. MA

307. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Report on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy. NIH Publication No. 00-3029; originally printed 1990; revised July 2000. GL

308. Dekker G., Sihai B. Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of preeclampsia. Lancet 2001; 357:209-215. GL

309. Magee L.A., Ornstein M.P., von Dadelszen P. Fortnightly review: management of hypertension in pregnancy. BMJ 1999: 318: 1332-1336. GL

310. The Magpie Trial Collaborativee Group. Do women with preeclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 359: 1877-1890. RT

311. Cuspidi С., Масса G., Sampieri L., Michev I., Salerno M., Fusi V. et al. High prevalence of cardiac and extracardiac target organ damage in refractory hypertension. J Hypertens 2001: 19: 2063-2070. OS

312. The ALLHAT Research Group. Major outcomes in moderately hypercholesterolemic, hypertensive patients randomized to pravastatin vs usual care. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack. 'Trial (ALLHAT-LLT).) JAMA 2002: 288: 2998-3007. RT

313. Sever P.S., Dahlof B., Poulter N.R., Wedel H., Beevers G., Caulfield M. et al. for the ASCOT investigators. The prevention of coronary events and stroke with atorvaslatin in hypertensive subjects with average or below average cholesterol levels. The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial: Lipid Lowering Arm (.ASCOTLIA). Lancet 2003: 361: 1149-1158. RT

314. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Lancet 1994: 344: 1383-1389. RT

315. Sacks F.M., Pfeffer M.A., Move L.A., Roulean J.L., Rutherford J.D., Cole T.G. et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and Recurrent Events Dial investigators. N Engl J Med 1996: 335: 1001-1009. RT

316. The Long-Term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischaemic Disease (LIPID) Study Croup. Prevention of cardiovascular events and death with pravastatin inpatients with coronary heart disease and a broad range of initial cholesterol levels. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 1349-1357. RT

317. Rubins H.B., Robins S.J., Collins D., Fye C.L., Anderson J.W., Elam M.B. et al. Gemfibrozil for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in men with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Veterans Affairs High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Intervention Dial Study Group. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 410-418. RT

318. Shepherd J., Cobbe S.M., Ford I., Isles C.G., LorimerA.R., MacFarlane P.W. et al. Prevention of coronary heart disease with pravastatin in men with hypercholesterolemia. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 1995: 333: 1301 -1307. RT

319. Howns J.R., Clearfield M., Weis S., Whitney E., Shapiro D.R., Beere P.A. et al. Primary prevention of acute coronary events with lovaslatin in men and women with average cholesterol levels: results of AFCAPS/Tex-CAPS. Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study. JAMA 1998; 279:1615-1622. RT

320. Heart Protection Study Group. MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20,536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 7-22. RT

321. Shepherd J., Blauw G.J., Murphy M.B., Bollen E.L., Buckley B.M., Cobbe S.M. et al. Pravastatin in elderly individuals at risk of vascular disease (PROSPER): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002; 360: 1623-1630. RT

322. Prospective studies collaboration. Cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, and stroke: 13.000 strokes in 450,000 people in 45 prospective cohorts. Lancet 1995: 346: 1647-1653. MA

323. Grouse J.R., Byington R.P., Furberg C.D. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy and stroke risk reduction: an analysis of clinical trials data. Atherosclerosis 1998; 138: 11-24. MA

324. Haffner S.M., Lehto S., Ronnemaa T., Pyorala K., Laakso M. Mortality from coronary heart disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes and in nondiabetic subjects with and without prior myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 229-234. OS

325. Expert Pane! on Detection. Evaluation. And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). Executive Summary of the Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) JAMA 2001; 285: 2486-2497. GL

326. Athyros Y.G., Papageorgiou A.A., Mercouris B.R., Athyrou W., Symeonidis A.N., Basayannis E.O. et al. Deal men! with atorvastatin to the National Cholesterol Educational Program goal versus 'usual' care in secondary coronary heart disease prevention. The Greek Atorvastatin and Coronary-heart-disease Evaluation (GREACE) study. Curr Med Res Opin 2002: 18: 220-228. RT

327. Antithrombotic Trialists' Collaboration. Collaborative metaanalysis of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy for prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke in high risk patients. BMJ 2002; 324: 71-86. MA

328. Zanchetti A., Hansson L., Dahlof B., Julius S., Menard J., Warnold I., Wedel H. Benefit and harm of low-dose aspirin in well-treated hypertensives at different baseline cardiovascular risk. J Hypertens 2002: 20: 2301-2З07. RT

329. Sanmuganathan P.S., Gbabramani P., Jackson P.R., Wallis E.J., Ramsay L.E. Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived front metaanalysis of randomised trials. Heart 2001; 85: 265-271. MA

330. Hayden M., Pignone M., Phillips С. Mulrow С., Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events: a summary of the evidence for the US. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2002; 136: 161-172. MA

331. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT). The absence of a glycemic threshold for the development of long-term complications: the perspective of the Diabetes Control and Complications trial. Diabetes 1996.; 45: 1289-1298. RT

332. Balkan B., Shipley M., Jarrett R.J., Pyorala K., Pyorala M., Forhan A., Eschwege E. High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study. Diabetes Care 1998; 21: 360-367. OS

333. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications inpatients with type 2 diabetes (VKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837-853. RT

334. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 1993; 329: 977-986. RT

335. European Diabetes Policy Group 1999. A desktop guide to type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes AW 1999; 16: 716-730. GL

336. Ezzati M., Lopez A.D., Rodgers A., Vander Hoorn S., Murray C.J. Selected major risk factors and global and regional burden of disease. Lancet 2002: 360: 1347-1360. OS

337. Burt V.L., Cutler J.A., Higgins M., Horan M.J., Laharthe D., Whelton P. et al. Trands in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in the adult US population. Data from the Health Examination Surveys, 1960 to 1991. Hypertension 1995; 26: 60-69. OS

338. Marques-Vidal P., Tuomilehto J. Hypertension awareness, treatment and control in the community: is the 'rule of halves' still valid? J Human Hypertens 1997; 11: 213-220. OS

339. Menotti A., Land M., Zanchetti A., Puddu P.E., Cirillo M., Mancini M., Vagnarelli О.Т. Impact of the Gubbio population study on community control of blood pressure and hypertension. Gubbio Study Research Group. J Hypertens 2001; 19: 843-850. OS

340. Oxman A.D., Thomson M.A., Davis D.A., Haynes R.B. No magic bullets: a systematic review of 102 trials of interventions to improve professional practice. Can Med Ass J 1995; 153: 1423-1431. MA

341. Chalmers J. Implementation of guidelines for management of hypertension. Clin Exper Hypertens 1992; 21: 647-657.

Для цитирования:

Статья Р. Рекомендации по диагностике и лечению артериальной гипертензии. Артериальная гипертензия. 2004;10(2):65-97.

For citation:

Article E. . "Arterial’naya Gipertenziya" ("Arterial Hypertension"). 2004;10(2):65-97. (In Russ.)

Просмотров: 39

Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

ISSN 1607-419X (Print)
ISSN 2411-8524 (Online)