Preview

Артериальная гипертензия

Расширенный поиск

Метаболический синдром: время критической оценки

https://doi.org/10.18705/1607-419X-2006-12-2-99-116

Полный текст:

Аннотация

Термин «метаболический синдром» отражает набор факторов риска сердечно-сосудистых заболеваний (ССЗ), в основе которого, предположительно, лежит инсулинорезистентность. Поскольку термин широко используется в исследованиях и клинической практике, мы провели широкий поиск литературы касающейся его критериев, патогенеза и ассоциации с уровнем риска ССЗ, а также целей и значения лечения. В то время как не существует сомнений в отношении объединения факторов риска в определенную группу, мы обнаружили, что термин метаболического синдрома точно не определен, нет убедительного представления о его патогенезе и существуют значимые сомнения в отношении его роли как фактора риска ССЗ. Наш анализ показывает, что слишком много критически важной информации отсутствует для того, чтобы присвоить этому состоянию понятие «синдрома». До тех пор пока не будет выполнено большое количество необходимых исследований, клиницистам следует выявлять и лечить известные факторы риска ССЗ вне зависимости от того, отвечает ли пациент критериям метаболического синдрома или нет.

Об авторах

R. Kahn
Американская диабетологическая ассоциация; Европейская ассоциация по изучению сахарного диабета
Россия


J. Buse
Американская диабетологическая ассоциация; Европейская ассоциация по изучению сахарного диабета
Россия


E. Ferrannini
Американская диабетологическая ассоциация; Европейская ассоциация по изучению сахарного диабета
Россия


M. Stern
Американская диабетологическая ассоциация; Европейская ассоциация по изучению сахарного диабета
Россия


Список литературы

1. Avogaro P., Crepaldi G., Enzi G., Tiengo A: Associazione di iperlidemia, diabete mellito e obesita di medio grado. Acto Diabetol Lat 4:36-41, 1967.

2. Haller H: Epidemiology and associated risk factors of hyperlipoproteinemia. Z Gesamte Inn Med 32:124-128, 1977.

3. Singer P: Diagnosis of primary hyperlipoproteinemias. Z Gesamte Inn Med 32:129-133, 1977.

4. Himsworth H: Diabetes mellitus: a differentiation into insulin-sensitive and insulin-insensitive types. Lancet 1:127-130, 1936.

5. Shen S-W., Reaven G.M., Farquhar J.W: Comparison of impedance to insulin mediated glucose uptake in normal and diabetic subjects. J Clin Invest 49:2151-2160, 1970.

6. Ginsburg H., Kimmerling G., Olefsky J.M., Reaven G.M: Demonstration of insulin resistance in untreated adult onset diabetic subjects with fasting hyperglycemia.J Clin Invest 55:454-461,1975.

7. Reaven G.M., Lemer R., Stem M., Farquhar J.W: Role of insulin in endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Invest 46:1756-1767, 1967.

8. Olefsky J.M., Farquhar J.W., Reaven G.M: Reappraisal of the role of insulin in hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Med 57:551-560, 1974.

9. Orchard T.J., Becker D.J., Bates M., Kuller L.H., Drash A.L : Plasma insulin and lipoprotein concentrations: an atherogenic association? Am J Epidemiol 118:326-337, 1983.

10. Olefsky J.M., Kolterman O.G., Scarlett J.A: Insulin action and resistance in obesity and non-insulin-dependent type II diabetes mellitus. Am J Physiol 243.E15-E30, 1982.

11. Stern M.P., Haffner S.M: Body fat distribution and hyperinsulinemia as risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Arteriosclerosis 6:123-130, 1986.

12. Modan M., Halkin H., Almog S., Lusky A., Eshkol A., Shefi M., Shitrit A., Fuchs Z: Hypennsulinemia: a link between hypertension, obesity, and glucose intolerance. J Clin Invest 75:809-817, 1985.

13. Haffner S.M., Fong D., Hazuda H.P., Pugh J.A., Patterson J.K: Hypennsulinemia, upper body adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in non-diabetics. Metabolism 37:338-345, 1988.

14. Ferrannini E., Buzzigoli G., Bonadonna R., Giorico M.A., Oleggini M., Graziadei L., Pedrinelli R., Brandi L., Bevilacqua S: Insulin resistance in essential hypertension. N Engl J Med317:350-357,1987.

15. Wingard D.L., Barrett-Connor E., Criqui M.H., Suarez L: Clustering of heart disease risk factors in diabetic compared to nondiabetic adults. Am J Epidemiol 117:19 '26, 1983.

16. Reaven G.M: Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37:1595-1607, 1988

17. Zavaroni I., Bonora E., Pagliara M., Dall'Aglio E., Luchetti L., Buonnano G., Bonati P.A., Bergonzani M., Gnudi L., Passeri M, et al.: Risk factors for coronary artery disease in healthy persons with hyperinsulinemia and normal glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 320:502-506, 1989.

18. Ferrannini E., Haffner S.M., Mitchell B.D., Stern M.P: Hyperinsulinaemia: the key feature of a cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome. Diabetologia 34:416-422, 1991.

19. Haffner S.M., Valdez R.A., Hazuda H.P., Mitchell B.D., Morales P.A., Stem M.P: Prospective analysis of the insulin-resistance syndrome (syndrome X). Diabetes 41:715-722, 1992.

20. Mykkanen L., Kuusisto J., Pyorala K., Laakso M: Cardiovascular disease risk factors as predictors of type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in elderly subjects. Diabetologia 36:553-559, 1993.

21. Schmidt M.I., Duncan B.B., Watson R.L., Sharrett A.R., Brancati F.L., Heiss G: A metabolic syndrome in whites and African-Americans: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities baseline study. Diabetes Care 19:414-418, 1996. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ ijlink?linkType=ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=19/5/414

22. Laakso M., Sarlund H., Mykkanen L: Insulin resistance is associated with lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in subjects with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. Arteriosclerosis 10:223-231, 1990. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=atvbaha&resid= 10 /2/223

23. Schmidt M.I., Watson R.L., Duncan B.B., Metcalf P., Brancati F.L., Sharrett A.R., Davis C.E., Heiss G: Clustering of dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia, diabetes, and hypertension and its association with fasting insulin and central and overall obesity in a general population: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Investigators. Metabolism 45:699-706, 1996.

24. Meigs J.B., DAgostino R.B., Wilson P.W.F., Cupples L.A., Nathan D.M., Singer D.E: Risk variable clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome: the Framingham Offspring Study. Diabetes 46:1594-1600, 1997. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=diabetes&resid=46/10/1594

25. Liese A.D., Mayer-Davis E.J., Haffner S.M: Development of the multiple metabolic syndrome: an epidemiologic perspective. Epidemiol Rev 20:157-172, 1998.

26. World Health Organization: Definition, Diagnosis, and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications: Report of a WHO Consultation. Geneva, World Health Org., 1999.

27. Expert Panel on the Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults: Executive summary of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAM A 285:2486-2497, 2001. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink? link Type=FULL&joumalCode =jama&resid=285/19/2486

28. Grundy S.M., Brewer H.B.Jr., Cleeman J.I., Smith S.C.fr., Lenfant C., National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, American Heart Association: Definition of metabolic syndrome: report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart Association conference on scientific issues related to definition. Circulation 109:433-438, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=FULL& joumalCode=circulationaha&resid =109/3/433

29. Balkau B., Charles M.A., Drivsholm T., Borch-Johnsen K., Wareham N., Yudkin J.S., Morris R., Zavaroni I., van Dam R., Feskins E., Gabriel R., Diet M., Nilsson P., Hedblad B., European Group For The Study Of Insulin Resistance (EGIR): Frequency of the WHO metabolic syndrome in European cohorts, and an alternative definition of an insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes Metab 28:364-376, 2002.

30. Einhorn D., Reaven G.M., Cobin R.H., Ford E., Ganda O.P., Handelsman Y., Heilman R., Jellinger P.S., Kendall D., Krauss R.M., Neufeld N.D., Petak S.M., Rodbard H.W., Seibel J.A., Smith D.A., Wilson P.W: American College of Endocrinology position statement on the insulin resistance syndrome. Endocr Pract 9:237-252, 2003.

31. Wilson P.W.F., Grundy S.M: The metabolic syndrome: practical guide to origins and treatment: part I. Circulation 108:1422-1425, 2003. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType= FULL&joumalCode=circulationaha&resid =108/12/1422

32. Grundy S.M., Hansen B., Smith S.C. Jr, Cleeman J.I., Kahn R.A: Clinical management of metabolic syndrome. Circulation 109:551- 556,2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =FULL&joumalCode=circulationaha&resid =109/4/551

33. Lakka H.M., Laaksonen D.E., Lakka T.A., Niskanen L.K., Kumpusalo E., Tuomilehto J., Salonen J.T: The metabolic syndrome and total and cardiovascular disease mortality in middle-aged men JAMA 288:2709-2716, 2002.

34. McNeill A.M., Rosamond W.D., Girman C.J., Golden S.H., Schmidt M.I., East H.E., Ballantyne C.M., Heiss G: The metabolic syndrome and 11-year risk of incident cardiovascular disease in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Diabetes Care 28:385-390, 2005.

35. Stern S.E., Williams K., Ferrannini E., Defronzo R.A., Bogardus C., Stern M.P: Identification of individuals with insulin resistance using routine clinical measurements. Diabetes 54:333-339, 2005.

36. Ford E.S., Giles W.H: A comparison of the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using two proposed definitions. Diabetes Care 26:575-581, 2003.

37. Meigs J.B., Wilson P.W., Nathan D.M., DAgostino R.B. Sr., Williams K., Haffner S.M: Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome in the San Antonio Heart and Framingham Offspring Studies. Diabetes 52:2160-2167, 2003.

38. Lempiainen P., Mykkanen L., Pyorala K., Laakso M., Kuusisto J: Insulin resistance syndrome predicts coronary heart disease events in elderly non-diabetic men. Circulation 100:123-128, 1999.

39. Kekalainen P., Sarlund H., Pyorala K., Laakso M: Hyperinsulinemia cluster predicts the development of type 2 diabetes independent of a family history of diabetes. Diabetes Care 22:86- 92, 1999 http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=22/1/86.

40. Pyorala M., Miettinen H., Halonen P., Laakso M., Pyorala K: Insulin resistance syndrome predicts the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 20:538-544, 2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumalCode=atvbaha&resid=20/2/538.

41. Kuusisto J., Lempiainen P., Mykkanen L., Laakso M: Insulin resistance syndrome predicts coronary heart disease events in elderly type 2 diabetic men. Diabetes Care 24:1629-1633, 2001. http:// care. diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumal Code=diacare&resid=24/9/1629.

42. Isomaa B., Almgren P., Tuomi T., Forsen B., Lahti K., Nissen M., Taskinen M.R., Groop L: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes Care 24:683-689, 2001. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =ABST&joumal Code=diacare&resid=24/4/683.

43. Onat A., Ceyhan K., Basar О., Erer B., Tobrak S., Sansoy V: Metabolic syndrome: major impact on coronary risk in a population with low cholesterol levels: a prospective and cross-sectional evaluation. Atherosclerosis 165:285-292, 2002. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/externalref?access_num =12417279&link type=MED

44. Alexander C.M., Landsman P.B., Teutsch S.M., Haffner S.M., Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP): NCEP-defined metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and prevalence of coronary heart disease among NHANES III participants age 50 years and older. Diabetes 52:1210-1214, 2003. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumal Code=diabetes&resid=52/5/1210

45. Katzmarzyk P.T., Church T.S., Blair S.N: Cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates the effects of the metabolic syndrome on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men. Arch Intern Med 164:1092- 1097,2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =ABST&joumalCode=archinte&resid=164/10/1092

46. Ford E.S: The metabolic syndrome and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all-causes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey II Mortality Study. Atherosclerosis 173:309-314, 2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/extemal_ref?access_num=15064107&linktype=MED

47. Girman C.J., Rhodes T., Mercuri M., Pyorala K., Kjekshus J., Pedersen T.R., Beere P.A., Gotto A.M., Clearfield M., the 4S Group, the AFCAPS/Tex CAPS Research Group: The metabolic syndrome and risk of major coronary events in the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S) and the Air Force/Texas Coronary Atherosclerosis Prevention Study (AFCAPS/TexCAPS).AmJ Cardiol 93:136-141, 2004. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ extemal_ref?access_num=14715336&link_type=MED

48. Malik S., Wong N.D., Franklin S.S., Kamath T.V., L’Italien G.J., Pio J.R., Williams G.R: Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease and on all causes in United States adults. Circulation 110:1245-1250, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=110/10/1245

49. Hunt K.J., Resendez, Williams K., Haffner S.M., Stem M.P: National Cholesterol Education Program versus World Health Organization metabolic syndrome in relation to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the San Antonio Heart Study. Circulation 110:1251-1257, 2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumal Code=circulationaha&resid= 110/10/1251

50. Scuteri A., Najjar S., Morrell C., Lakatta E: The metabolic syncrome in older individuals: prevalence and prediction of cardiovascular events. Diabetes Care 28:882-887, 2005. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=28/4/882

51. Bmno G., Merletti F., Biggeri A., Bargero G., Ferrero S., Runzo C., Prina Cerai S., Pagano G., Cavallo-Perin P; Casale Monferrato Study: Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes: the Casale Monferrato Study. Diabetes Care 27:2689-2694, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=27/11/2689

52. Resnick H.E., Jones K., Ruotolo G., Jain A.K., Henderson J., Lu W., Howard B.V., Strong Heart Study: Insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular disease in non-diabetic American Indians: the Strong Heart Study. Diabetes Care 26:861-867, 2003. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink? linkType =ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=26/3/861

53. Marroquin О.С., Kip K.E., Kelley D.E., Johnson B.D., Shaw L.J., Bairey Merz C.N., Sharaf B.L., Pepine C.J., Sopko G., Reis S.E., Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Investigators: Metabolic syndrome modifies the cardiovascular risk associated with angiographic coronary artery disease in women: a report from the Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation. Circulation 109:714-721, 2004.

54. Fuller J.H., Shipley M.J., Rose G Jarrett R.J., Keen H: Coronary heart disease risk and impaired glucose tolerance: the Whitehall Study. Lancet 1:1373-1376, 1980.

55. Lippel K., Tyroler H., Eder H., Gotto A., Vahouny G: Relationship of hypertriglyceridemia to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1:406-417, 1981.

56. Miller G.J., Miller N.E: Plasma high density lipoprotein concentration and development of ischemic heart disease. Lancet 1:16-19, 1975.

57. Keys A., Aravanis C., Blackburn H., Van Buchem F.S., Buzina R., Djordjevic B.S., Fidanza F., Karvonen M.J., Menotti A., Puddu V., Taylor H.L: Coronary heart disease: overweight and obesity as risk factors. Ann Intern Med 77:15-27, 1972. http://care. diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/extemal_ref?access_num =5052445 &link_type=MED.

58. Deckert T., Feldt-Rasmussen B., Jensen T., Kofoed-Enevoldsen A: Albuminuria reflects widespread vascular damage: the Stenohypothesis. Diabetologia 32:219-226, 1989. http://care. diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ref?access_num=2668076 &link_type=MED.

59. Lewington S., Clarke R., Qjzilbash N., Peto R., Collins R: Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality : a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies: Prospective Studies Collaboration. Lancet 360:1903-1913, 2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ externaljref?accessjnum=12493255&linkJtype =MED.

60. Kannel W.B., McGee D.L: Diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors in the Framingham study. Circulation 59:8-13, 1979. http:// care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink?lirtkType=ABST& joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=59/1/8.

61. Rosengren A., Welin L., Tsipigianni A., Wilhelmsen L: Impact of cardiovascular risk factors on coronary heart disease and mortality among middle-aged diabetic men: a general population study. BMJ 299:1127-1131, 1989. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ extemal_ref?access_num =2513018&link_type =MED.

62. Stamler J., Vaccaro O., Neaton J.O., Wentworth D: Diabetes, other nsk factors, and 12-year cardiovascular mortality for men screened in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Diabetes Care 16:434-444, 1993. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink? link Type =ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=16/2/434.

63. Ross R: Atherosclerosis: an inflammatory disease. N Engl J Med 340:115-126, 1999.

64. Danesh J., Collins R., Appleby P., Peto R: Association of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, albumin, or leukocyte count with coronary heart disease: meta-analyses of prospective studies. JAMA 279:1477-1482, 1998.

65. Ridker P.M., Hennekens C.H., Buring J.E., Rifai N: C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in the prediction of cardiovascular disease in women. N Engl J Med 342:836-843,2000.

66. Ridker P.M: Clinical applications of C-reactive protein for cardiovascular disease detection and prevention. Circulation 107:363-369, 2003.

67. Ridker P.M., Cannon C.P., Morrow D., Rifai N., Rose L.M., McCabe C.H., Pfeffer M.A., Braunwald E: C-reactive protein levels and outcomes after statin therapy: Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 (PROVEIT-TIMI22). NEnglJMed352:20-28,2005.

68. Ridker P.M., Buring J.E., Cook N.R., Rifai N: C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14,719 initially healthy American women. Circulation 107:391-397, 2003.

69. Pradhan A.D., Cook N.R., Buring J.E., Manson J.E., Ridker P.M: C-reactive protein is independently associated with fasting insulin in nondiabetic women. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 23:650-655, 2003.

70. Yudkin J.S., Stehouwer C.D., Emeis J.J., Coppack S.W: C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 19:972-978, 1999.

71. McLaughlin T., Abbasi F., Lamendola C., Liang L., Reaven G., Schaaf P., Reaven P: Differentiation between obesity and insulin resistance in the association with C-reactive protein. Circulation 106:2908-2912, 2002.

72. Festa A., DAgostino R.Jr., Howard G., Mykkanen L., Tracy R.P., Haffner S.M: Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Circulation 102:42-47, 2000.

73. Sattar N., Gaw A., Scherbakova O., Ford I., O'Reilly D.S., Haffner S.M., Isles C., Macfarlane P.W., Packard C.J., Cobbe S.M., Shepherd J: Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation 108:414-419,2003.

74. Rutter M.K., Meigs J.B., Sullivan L.M., DAgostino R.B. Sr., Wilson P.W: C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the Framingham Offspring Study. Circulation 110:380-385, 2004.

75. Reilly M.P., Wolfe M.L., Rhodes T., Girman C., Mehta N., Rader D.J: Measures of insulin resistance add incremental value to the clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in association with coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation 110:803-809, 2004.

76. Ridker P.M., Wilson P.W., Grundy S.M: Should C-reactive protein be added to metabolic syndrome and to assessment of global cardiovascular risk? Circulation 109:2818-2825, 2004.

77. Yudkin J.S., Kumari M., Humphries S.E., Mohamed-Ali V: Inflammation, obesity, stress and coronary heart disease: is interleukin-6 the link? Atherosclerosis 148:209-214, 2000 http:// care, diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/external_ref?access _num =10657556&link_type =MED.

78. Xu H., Barnes G.T., Yang Q., Tan G., Yang D., Chou C.J., Sole J., Nichols A., Ross J.S., Tartaglia L.A., Chen H: Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 112:1821-1830, 2003.

79. Wellen K.E., Hotamisligil G.S: Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112:1785-1788,2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/externalref?accessnum-14679172&link_type=MED

80. Pearson T.A., Mensah G.A., Alexander R.W., Anderson J.L., Cannon R.O. 3rd, Criqui M., Fadl Y.Y., Fortmann S.P., Hong Y., Myers G.L., Rif ai N., Smith S.C. Jr, Taubert K., Tracy R.P., Vinicor F., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Heart Association: Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation 107:499-511,2003. http ://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =FULL &joumal Code=circulationaha&resid =107/3/499

81. Kershaw E.E., Flier J.S: Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:2548-2556, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode =jcem&resid=89/6/2548

82. Weyer C., Funahashi T., Tanaka S., Hotta K., Matsuzawa Y., Pratley R.E., Tataranni P.A: Hypoadiponectinemia in obesity and type 2 diabetes: close association with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:1930-1935, 2001.

83. Chandran M., Phillips S.A., Ciaraldi T., Henry R.R: Adiponectin: more than just another fat cell hormone? Diabetes Care 26:2442-2450, 2003. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink? link Type=FULL&joumalCode=diacare&resid=26/8/2442

84. Matsubara M., Maruoka S., Katayose S: Decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in women with dyslipidemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:2764-2769, 2002.

85. Kazumi T., Kawaguchi A., Sakai K., Hirano T., Yoshino G: Young men with high-normal blood pressure have lower serum adiponectin, smaller LDL size, and higher elevated heart rate than those with optimal blood pressure. Diabetes Care 25:971-976, 2002.

86. Kumada M., Kihara S., Sumitsuji S., Kawamoto T., Matsumoto S, Ouchi N., Arita Y., Okamoto Y., Shimomura I., Hiraoka H., Nakamura T., Funahashi T., Matsuzawa Y., Osaka CAD Study Group: Association of hypoadiponectinemia with coronary artery disease in men. Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 23:85-89, 2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType = ABST&joumalCode=atvbaha&resid =23/1/85.

87. Kojima S., Funahashi T., Sakamoto T., Miyamoto S., Soejima H., Hokamaki J., Kajiwara I., Sugiyama S., Yoshimura M., Fujimoto K., Miyao Y., Suefuji H., Kitagawa A., Ouchi N., Kihara S., Matsuzawa Y., Ogawa H: The variation of plasma concentrations of a novel, adipocyte derived protein, adiponectin, in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Heart 89:667-672, 2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=FULL& journal Code=heartjnl&resid=89/6/667

88. Zoccali C., Mallamaci F., Tripepi G., Benedetto F.A., Cutrupi S., Parlongo S., Malatino L.S., Bonanno G., Seminara G., Rapisarda F., Fatuzzo P., Buemi M., Nicocia G., Tanaka S., Ouchi N., Kihara S., Funahashi T., Matsuzawa Y: Adiponectin, metabolic risk factors, and cardiovascular events among patients with end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 13:134-141, 2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumal Code =jnephrol&resid =13/1/134.

89. Pischon T., Girman C.J., Hotamisligil G.S., Rif ai N., Hu F.B., Rimm E.B: Plasma adiponectin levels and risk of myocardial infarction in men. JAMA 291:1730-1737, 2004 http://care.diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumalCode=jama&resid= 291/14/1730.

90. Potter van Loon B.J., Kluft С., Radder J.K., Blankenstein M.A., Meinders A.E: The cardiovascular risk factor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 is related to insulin resistance. Metabolism 42:945-949, 1993. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/extemal_ ref? access_num =8345817&link_type=MED

91. Haffner S.M., D'Agostino R.Jr., Mykkanen L., Tracy R., Howard B., Rewers M., Selby J., Savage P.J., Saad M.F: Insulin sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes: relationship to cardiovascular risk factors: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes Care 22:562-568, 1999. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=22/4/562.

92. Festa A., DAgostino R.Jr., Mykkanen L., Tracy R.P., Zaccaro D.J., Hales C.N., Haffner S.M: Relative contribution of insulin and its precursors to fibrinogen and PAI-1 in a large population with different states of glucose tolerance: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS). Arterioscler Thromb Vase Biol 19:562-568,1999. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=atvbaha&resid =19/3/562.

93. Ernst E., Resch K.L: Fibrinogen as a cardiovascular risk factor: a meta-analysis and review of the literature. Ann Intern Med 18:956-963, 1993.

94. Imperatore G., Riccardi G., Iovine C., Rivellese A.A., Vaccaro O: Plasma fibrinogen: a new factor of the metabolic syndrome: a population-based study. Diabetes Care 21:649-654, 1998. http:// care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode=diacare&resid=21/4/649

95. Wilson P.W., D’Agostino R.B., Levy D., Belanger A.M., Silbershatz H., Kannel W.B: Prediction of coronary heart disease using risk factor categories. Circulation 97:1837-1847,1998. http://care. diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumalCode =circulationaha&resid=97/18/1837

96. Stern M.P., Williams K., Gonzalez- Villalpando C., Hunt K.J., Haffner S.M: Does the metabolic syndrome improve identification of individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease? Diabetes Care 27.2676-2681,2004 [erratum in Diabetes Care28:238, 2005] http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =FULL&joumalCode=diacare&resid=28/1/238

97. Klein B.E., Klein R., Lee K.E: Components of the metabolic syndrome and risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes in beaver dam. Diabetes Care 25:1790-1794, 2002. http:// care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=25/10/1790

98. Golden S.H., Folsom A.R., Coresh J., Sharrett A.R., Szklo M., Brancati F: Risk factor groupings related to insulin resistance and their synergistic effects on subclinical atherosclerosis: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Diabetes 51:3069-3076, 2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=diabetes&resid=51/10/3069.

99. Stevens R.J., Kothari V., Adler A.I., Stratton I.M; United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: The UKPDS risk engine: a model for the risk of coronary heart disease in type II diabetes (UKPDS 56). Clin Sei (Lond) 101:671-679,2001 [erratum in Clin Sei (Lond) 102:679, 2002].

100. Stern M.P., Williams K., Hunt K.J: Impact on diabetes/ metabolic syndrome in patients with established cardiovascular disease. Atheroscler Suppl 6:3-6, 2005.

101. Yamell J.W.G., Patterson C.C., Bainton D., Sweetnam P.M: Is metabolic syndrome a discrete entity in the general population ? Evidence from the Caerphilly and Speedwell population studies. Heart 79:248-252, 1998. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=heartjnl&resid =79/3/248.

102. Yeo W.W., Yeo K.R: Predicting CHD risk in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 18:341-344, 2001. http:// care, diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/extemal_ref?access _num = 11472442&link_type=MED.

103. Song S.H., Brown P.M: Coronary heart disease risk assessment in diabetes mellitus: comparison of UKPDS risk engine with Framingham risk assessment function and its clinical implications. Diabet Med 21.238-245,2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/ cgi/extemal_ref?access num=15008833&link_type=MED.

104. McEwan P., Williams J.E., Griffiths J.D., Bagust A., Peters J.R., Hopkinson P., Currie C.J: Evaluating the performance of the Framingham risk equations in a population with diabetes. Diabet Med 21.318-323, 2004. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ extemal_ref?access_num=15049932&link_type=MED.

105. Pyorala K: Relationship of glucose tolerance and plasma insulin to the incidence of coronary heart disease: results from two population studies in Finland. Diabetes Care 2:131-141, 1979. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink ?link Type =ABST&joumal Code=diacare&resid=2/2/131.

106. Welbom T.A., Weame K: Coronary heart disease incidence and cardiovascular mortality in Busselton with reference to glucose and insulin concentrations. Diabetes Care 2:154-160, 1979. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=2/2/154

107. Fontbonne A., Charles M.A., Thibult N., Richard J.L., Claude J.R., Warnet J.M., Rosselin G.E., Eschwege E: Hyperinsulinaemia as a predictor of coronary heart disease mortality in a healthy population: the Paris Prospective Study, 15-yearfollow-up. Diabetologia 34:356-361, 1991. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ ref?access _num=1864491&link_type=MED

108. Moller L.F., Jespersen J: Fasting semm insulin levels and coronary heart disease in a Danish cohort: 17-year follow-up. J Cardiovasc Risk 2:235-240, 1995. http://care.diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/extemal_ref?access_num = 7584799&link_type=MED

109. Perry I.J., Wannamethee S.G., Whincup P.H., Shaper A.G., Walker M.K., Alberti K.G: Semm insulin and incident coronary heart disease in middle-aged British men. Am J Epidemiol 144:224-234, 1996. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =ABST&oumalCode=amjepid&resid=144/3/224

110. Despres J.P., Lamarche B., Mauriege P., Cantin B., Dagenais G.R., Moorjani S., Lupien P.J: Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Engl J Med 334:952-957, 1996. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumal Code=nejm&resid=334/15/952

111. Pyorala M., Miettinen H., Laakso M., Pyorala K: Hyperinsulinemia predicts coronary heart disease risk in healthy middle-aged men: the 22-year follow-up results of the Helsinki Policemen Study. Circulation 98:398-404, 1998. http:// care,diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=98/5/398

112. Ducimetiere P., Eschwege E., Papoz L., Richard J.L., Claude J.R., Rosselin G: Relationship of plasma insulin levels to the incidence of myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease mortality in a middle-aged population. Diabetologia 19:205-210, 1980. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ref?access_num= 6997122&link_type=MED.

113. Folsom A.R., Szklo M., Stevens J., Liao F., Smith R., Eckfeldt J.H: A prospective study of coronary heart disease in relation to fasting insulin, glucose, and diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetes Care 20:935-942, 1997. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& journal Code=diacare&resid=20/6/935

114. Yip J., Facchini F.S., Reaven G.M: Resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal as a predictor of cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2773-2776, 1998. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=jcem&resid=83/8/2773.

115. Uusitupa M.I., Niskanen L.K., Siitonen O., Voutilainen E., Pyorala K: 5-year incidence of atherosclerotic vascular disease in relation to general risk factors, insulin level, and abnormalities in lipoprotein composition in non-insulin dependent diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. Circulation 82:27-36, 1990. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=82/1/27.

116. Ни G., Qiao Q., Tuomilehto J., Eliasson M., Feskens E.J., Pyorala K., DECODE Insulin Study Group: Plasma insulin and cardiovascular mortality in non-diabetic European men and women: a meta-analysis of data from eleven prospective studies. Diabetologia 47:1245-1256, 2004. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/external_ ref?access num=15241592&link_type=MED.

117. Welin L., Eriksson H., Larsson B., Ohlson L.O., Svardsudd K., Tibblin G: Hyperinsulinaemia is not a major coronary risk factor in elderly men: the study of men bom in 1913. Diabetologia 35:766-770, 1992. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ ref?access num=1511804&link_type =MED.

118. Orchard T.J., Eichner J., Kuller L.H., Becker D.J., McCallum L.M., Grandits G.A: Insulin as a predictor of coronary heart disease: interaction with apolipoprotein E phenotype: a report from the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial. Ann Epidemiol4:40-45,1994. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/extemal_ref?access num =8205270&linktype=MED.

119. Ferrara A., Barrett- Connor E.L., Edelstein S.L : Hyperinsulinemia does not increase the risk of fatal cardiovascular disease in elderly men or women without diabetes: the Rancho Bernardo Study, 1984- 1991. Am J Epidemiol 140:857-869, 1994. http:// care,diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode=amjepid&resid=140/10/857.

120. Stern M.P: The insulin resistance syndrome: the controversy is dead, long live the controversy! Diabetologia 37:956-958, 1994. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ref?access num=7806029Sclink type =MED.

121. Wingard D.L., Barrett- Connor E.L., Ferrara A : Is insulin really a heart disease risk factor? Diabetes Care 18:1299-1304, 1995. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/external_ref7access_num =8612451&link_type=MED.

122. McKeigue P., Davey G: Associations between insulin levels and cardiovascular disease are confounded by comorbidity. Diabetes Care 18:1294-1298,1995.http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ extemal_ref?access_num =8612450&link type=MED.

123. Robbins D.C., Andersen L., Bowsher R., Chance R., Dinesen B., Frank B., Gingerich R., Goldstein D., Widemeyer H.M., Haffner S., Hales C.N., Jarett L., Polonsky K., Porte D., Sky1er J., Webb G., Gallagher K: Report of the American Diabetes Association's Task Force on standardization of the insulin assay. Diabetes 45:242-256, 1996. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode = diabetes&resid=45/2/242.

124. Wallace T.M., Levy J.C., Matthews D.R: Use and abuse of HOMA modeling. Diabetes Care 27:1487-1495, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=27/6/1487.

125. Yeni-Komshian H., Carantoni M., Abbasi F., Reaven G.M: Relationship between several surrogate estimates of insulin resistance and quantification of insulin-mediated glucose disposal in 490 healthy non-diabetic volunteers. Diabetes Care 23:171-175, 2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode=diacare&resid=23/2/171.

126. Ferrannini E., Balkau B: Insulin: in search of a syndrome. Diabet Med 19:724-729,2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/ cgi/extemal_ref?access_num=12207807&link_type =MED.

127. Facchini F.S., Hua N., Abbasi F., Reaven G.M: Insulin resistance as a predictor of age-related diseases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:3574-3578, 2001. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ ijlink ŸlinkType=ABST&joumalCode =jcem&resid=86/8/3574.

128. Mykkanen L., Haffner S.M., Ronnemaa T., Bergman R.N., Laakso M: Low insulin sensitivity is associated with clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors. Am J Epidemiol 146:315-321, 1997. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType= ABST&joumalCode=amjepid&resid=146/4/315.

129. Weyer C., Hanson R.L., Tataranni P.A., Bogardus C., Pratley RE: A high fasting plasma insulin concentration predicts type 2 diabetes independent of insulin resistance: evidence fora pathogenic role of relative hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes 49:2094-2101, 2000.

130. McLaughlin T., Abbasi F., Cheal K., Chu J., Lamendola C., Reaven G: Use of metabolic markers to identify overweight individuals who are insulin-resistant. Ann Intern Med 139:802-809, 2003. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =ABST&joumalCode=annintmed&resid =139/10/802.

131. Liao Y., Kwon S., Shaughnessy S., Wallace P., Hutto A., Jenkins A.J., Klein R.L., Garvey W.T: Critical evaluation of adult treatment panel III criteria in identifying insulin resistance with dyslipidemia. Diabetes Care 27:978-983, 2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals. org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=diacare &resid=27/4/978.

132. Cheal K.L., Abbasi F., Lamendola C., McLaughlin T., Reaven G.M., Ford E.S: Relationship to insulin resistance of the Adult Treatment Panel III diagnostic criteria for identification of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 53:1195-1200, 2004. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diabetes&resid=53/5/1195.

133. Laakso M., Sarlund H., Salonen R., Suhonen M., Pyorala K., Salonen J.T., Karhapaa P: Asymptomatic atherosclerosis and insulin resistance. Arterioscler Thromb 11:1068-1076, 1991. http://care,diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&joumalCode=atvbaha&resid=11/4/1068.

134. Agewall S., Fagerberg B., Attvall S., Wendelhag I., Urbanavicius V., Wikstrand J: Carotid artery wall intima-media thickness is associated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal in men at high and low coronary risk. Stroke 26:956-960, 1995. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=strokeaha&resid=26/6/956.

135. Howard G., O’Leary D.H., Zaccaro D., Haffner S., Rewers M., Hamman R., Selby J.V., Saad M.F., Savage P., Bergman R: Insulin sensitivity and atherosclerosis: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Investigators. Circulation 93:1809-1817, 1996. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=93/10/1809.

136. Haffner S.M., Mykkanen L., Festa A., Burke J.P., Stem M.P: Insulin-resistant prediabetic subjects have more atherogenic risk factors than insulin-sensitive prediabetic subjects: implications for preventing coronary heart disease during the prediabetic state. Circulation 101:975-980,2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/ cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&journalCode=circulationaha &resid = 101/9/975.

137. DeFronzo R.A: Lilly Lecture 1987: The triumvirate: ?-cell, muscle, liver: a collusion responsible for NIDDM. Diabetes 37:667-687, 1988. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/extemal_ ref?access_num =3289989&link_type =MED.

138. Reaven G.M: Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease. Physiol Rev 75:473-486, 1995. http://care.diabetes journals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&joumalCode=physrev &resid=75/3/473.

139. Mardia K.V., Kent J.T., Bibby J.M: Factor analysis. In Multivariate Analysis. Mardia K.V., Kent J.T., Bibby J.M., Eds. London, Academic Press, 1979, p. 255-280.

140. Cureton E.E., DAgostino R.B: Factor Analysis: An Applied Approach. Hillsdale, N.J., Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986.

141. Krzanowski W.J: Explaining observed associations: latent-variable models. In Principles of Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Primer. Krzanowski W.J., Ed. London, Chapman and Hall, 1994, p. 93-106.

142. Lawlor D.A., Ebrahim S., May M., Davey Smith G: (Mis)use of factor analysis in the study of insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 159:1013-1018, 2004. http:// care,diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=amjepid&resid= 159/11/1013.

143. Gray R.S., Fabsitz R.R., Cowan L.D., Lee E.T., Howard B.V., Savage P.J: Risk factor clustering in the insulin resistance syndrome: the Strong Heart Study. Am J Epidemiol 148:869-878, 1998 http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=amjepid&resid=148/9/869.

144. Lehto S., Ronnemaa T., Pyorala К., Laakso M: Cardiovascular risk factors clusteringwith endogenous hyperinsulinaemia predict death from coronary heart disease in patients with type II diabetes. Diabetologia 43:148-155,2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/ cgi/extemal_ref?access_num=10753035&link_type -MED.

145. Sakkinen P.A., Wahl P., Cushman M., Lewis M.R., Tracy R.P: Clustering of procoagulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis variables with metabolic factors in insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Epidemiol 152:897-907, 2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgiijlink?linkType= ABST&joumalCode=amjepid&resid=152/10/897.

146. Maison P., Byrne C.D., Hales C.N., Day N.E., Wareham N.J: Do different dimensions of the metabolic syndrome change together over time? Evidence supporting obesity as the central feature. Diabetes Care 24:1758-1763, 2001. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink? link Type = ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=24/10/1758.

147. Hanley A.J., Karter A.J., Festa A., DAgostino R.Jr., Wagenknecht L.E., Savage P., Tracy R.P., Saad M.F., Haffner S: Factor analysis of metabolic syndrome using directly measured insulin sensitivity: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Diabetes 51:2642-2647, 2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType =ABST&joumalCode=diabetes&resid=51/8/2642.

148. Wang J.J., Qiao Q., Miettinen M.E., Lappalainen J., Hu G., Tuomilehto J: The metabolic syndrome defined by factor analysis and incident type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population with high postprandial glucose. Diabetes Care 27:2429-2437, 2004.

149. Ford E.S: Factor analysis and defining the metabolic syndrome. Ethn Dis 13:429-437, 2003.

150. Shen B.J., Todaro J.F., Niaura R., McCaffery J.M., Zhang J., Spiro A 3rd, Ward K.D: Are metabolic risk factors one unified syndrome? Modeling the structure of the metabolic syndrome X. Am J Epidemiol 157:701-711, 2003.

151. Laws A., Reaven G.M: Evidence for an independent relationship between insulin resistance and fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin concentrations. J Intern Med 231:25-30, 1992. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ external ref?access num=1732395&link_type =MED.

152. Carr D.B., Utzschneider K.M., Hull R.L., Kodama K., Retzlaff B.M., Brunzell J.D., Shofer J.B., Fish B.E., Knopp R.H., Kahn S.E: Intraabdominal fat is a major determinant of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 53:2087-2094, 2004. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST&joumal Code=diabetes&resid=53/8/2087.

153. Pyorala K., Ballantyne C.M., Gumbiner В., Lee M.W., Shah A., Davies M.J., Mitchel Y.B., Pedersen T.R., Kjekshus J., Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S): Reduction of cardiovascular events by simvastatin in nondiabetic coronary heart disease patients with and without the metabolic syndrome: subgroup analyses of the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). Diabetes Care 27:1735-1740,2004. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink? link Type = ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=27/7/1735.

154. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group: Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352:854-865, 1998. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ extemal_ref?access_num =9742977&link type=MED.

155. Knowler W.C., Barrett-Connor E., Fowler S.E., Hamman R.F., Lachin J.M., Walker E.A., Nathan D.M., Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group: Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346:393-403,2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType= ABST&joumal Code=nejm&resid=346/6/393.

156. Shadid S., Jensen M.D: Effects of pioglitazone versus diet and exercise on metabolic health and fat distribution in upper body obesity. Diabetes Care 26:3148-3152, 2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& joumalCode=diacare&resid=26/11/3148

157. Lebovitz H.E., Dole J.F., Patwardhan R., Rappaport E.B., Freed M.I., Rosiglitazone Clinical Trials Study Group: Rosiglitazone monotherapy is effective in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:280-288, 2001 [erratum in J Clin Endocrinol Metab86:1659,2001 andJ Clin Endocrinol Metab 2iv, 2002]. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=FULL& joumalCode =jcem&resid=86/4/1659.

158. Aronoff S., Rosenblatt S., Braithwaite S., Egan J.W., Mathisen A.L., Schneider R.L: Pioglitazone hydrochloride monotherapy improves glycemic control in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 6-month randomized placebo-controlled dose-response study: the Pioglitazone 001 Study Group. Diabetes Care 23:1605-1611, 2000. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType= ABST&joumalCode =diacare&resid=23/11/1605.

159. Freed M.I., Ratner R., Marcovina S.M., Kreider M.M., Biswas N., Cohen B.R., Brunzell J.D., Rosiglitazone Study 108 Investigators: Effects of rosiglitazone alone and in combination with atorvastatin on the metabolic abnormalities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol90:947-952,2002. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ external_ref?access num=12398960&link type =MED.

160. Haffner S.M., Greenberg A.S., Weston W.M., Chen H., Williams K., Freed M.I: Effect of rosiglitazone treatment on non-traditional markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Circulation 106:679-684, 2002. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST &joumalCode=circulationaha&resid =106/6/679.

161. Satoh N., Ogawa Y., Usui T., Tagami T., Kono S., Uesugi H., Sugiyama H., Sugawara A., Yamada K., Shimatsu A., Kuzuya H., Nakao K: Antiatherogenic effect of pioglitazone in type 2 diabetic patients irrespective of the responsiveness to its antidiabetic effect. Diabetes Care 26:2493-2499,2003. http://care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink? linkType=ABST&joumalCode=diacare&resid=26/9/2493.

162. Davidson M.B: Is treatment of insulin resistance beneficial independent of glycemia? Diabetes Care 26:3184-3186,2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=FULL& journal Code=diacare&resid=26/11/3184.

163. Chobanian A.V., Bakris G.L., Black H.R., Cushman W.C., Green L.A., Izzo J.L.Jr., Jones D.W., Materson B.J., Oparil S., Wright J.T.Jr., Roccella E.J., Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee: Seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension 42:1206-1252, 2003. http:// care.diabetesjoumals.org/cgi/ijlink?linkType=ABST& journal Code=hypertensionaha&resid=42/6/1206.

164. Smith S.C. Jr., Jackson R., Pearson T.A., Fuster V., Yusuf S., Faergeman O., Wood D.A., Alderman M., Horgan J., Home P., Hunn M., Grundy S.M: Principles for national and regional guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention: a scientific statement from the World Heart and Stroke Forum. Circulation 109:3112-3121, 2004. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/ijlink7linkType =FULL&joumalCode=circulationaha&resid=109/25/3112.

165. International Diabetes Federation: The IDF Consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome [article online]. Available from http://www.idf.org./. Accessed 2 June 2005.

166. Stein R: New diagnosis for overweight: major risk factors add up to «metabolic syndrome.» Washington Post, 8 February 2005: Sect. A, p. 1.

167. Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD, Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, 2000, p. 1746.

168. American Diabetes Association: Standards of medical care in diabetes. Diabetes Care 28 (Suppl. 1):S4-S36, 2005.


Для цитирования:


Kahn R., Buse J., Ferrannini E., Stern M. Метаболический синдром: время критической оценки. Артериальная гипертензия. 2006;12(2):99-116. https://doi.org/10.18705/1607-419X-2006-12-2-99-116

For citation:


Kahn R., Buse J., Ferrannini E., Stern M. The Metabolic Syndrome: Time for a Critical Appraisal. "Arterial’naya Gipertenziya" ("Arterial Hypertension"). 2006;12(2):99-116. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.18705/1607-419X-2006-12-2-99-116

Просмотров: 83


Creative Commons License
Контент доступен под лицензией Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


ISSN 1607-419X (Print)
ISSN 2411-8524 (Online)